This is a strict value strategy based on the writings of David Dreman and focusing on low P/E stocks. David Dreman champions a contrarian investment approach based on interpreting market psychology and using value measures to pick stocks that are out of favour with the market.
Dreman invests in out-of-favour stocks, often in out-of-favour industries, that he identifies using relatively straightforward metric criteria. He says: "I buy stocks when they are battered. I am strict with my discipline. I always buy stocks with low price-earnings ratios, low price-to-book value ratios and higher-than-average yield. Academic studies have shown that a strategy of buying out-of-favor stocks with low P/E, price-to-book and price-to-cash flow ratios outperforms the market pretty consistently over long periods of time."
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The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the EV/EBITDA multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the earnings yield.
Stockopedia explains P/E...
This is is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. A high P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation.
Unlike the EV/EBITDA multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question
This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Pounds Sterling for all companies.
Stockopedia explains Sales £m...
The sales figure gives a sense for the scale of a company, although companies can have very different profit margins depending on the industry and state of the business, so this may not bear much relation to the earnings figure. Some however argue for the importance of sales, since sales figures are less easy to manipulate than either earnings or book value.
The higher the ratio, the greater risk will be associated with the firm's operation. In addition, high debt to assets ratio may indicate low borrowing capacity of a firm, which in turn will lower the firm's financial flexibility. Like all financial ratios, a company's debt ratio should be compared with their industry average or other competing firms.
Companies with high debt/asset ratios are said to be "highly leveraged". A company with a high debt ratio could be in danger if creditors start to demand repayment of debt.
This is the ratio of Total Current Assets divided by Total Current Liabilities for the same period. NOTE: This item is Not Available (NA) for Banks, Insurance companies and other companies that do not distinguish between current and long term assets and liabilities.
Also known as Return on Sales, this value is the Net Income divided by Sales for the same period and expressed as a percentage. This is one of the best indicators of the company's efficiency because net profit takes into consideration all expenses of the company. Investors want the net profit margin to be as high as possible.
Stockopedia explains Net Mgn %...
This is one of the best indicators of the company's efficiency because net profit takes into consideration all expenses of the company. Investors want the net profit margin to be as high as possible. Rising margins are seen as a positive signal although high margins do tend to attract the interests of competitors.
Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. The DuPont formula is a common way to break down ROE into three important components. Essentially, ROE will equal the net margin multiplied by asset turnover multiplied by financial leverage.
Stockopedia explains ROE %...
Widely used by investors, the ROE ratio shows the return being generated for every pound of equity on the balance sheet. It should be thought of as the 'internal return' that the company generates, and should not be mistaken with the market returns that shareholders may attain.
It varies by industry but ROEs of 15% or over are usually considered desirable. High ROE numbers sustained over the long term may indicate a company has a 'sustainable competitive advantage'. Such companies tend to sell at higher valuation multiples.
The impact of leverage is one of the disadvantages of focusing on ROEs as it can skew ROE upwards - an alternative is to look at Return on Capital Employed.
The earnings per share ratio divides the net annual earnings of a company into the number of shares. Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability. One of the important differences vs. net-income growth rates is that EPS growth reflects the dilution that occurs from new stock issuance, the exercise of employee stock options, warrants, convertible securities, and share repurchases. Stocks with higher earnings-per-share growth rates are generally more desirable than those with slower earnings-per-share growth rates.
The dividend yield shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. It is calculated as the historic or consensus forecast Annual Dividend per Share, divided by the current Price, multiplied by 100, and is stated on a net, rather than gross, basis.
Stockopedia explains Yield %...
In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. A higher dividend yield is often considered to be desirable among many investors but it needs to be interpreted in light of the rest of the company's financials.
A high dividend yield may be considered to be evidence that a stock is under priced or alternatively it may be that the company has fallen on hard times and future dividends are at risk of being cut. Similarly a low dividend yield can be considered evidence that the stock is overpriced or an indication that future dividends may be higher. Many growth companies do not pay dividends, preferring to reinvest profits back into the business.