The Piotroski F-Score screen aims to identify deep bargain-bucket stocks that are in recovery. Josef Piotroski, a finance professor, recognized that, while it has long been shown that bargain stocks (having a low Price to Book Value) have strong collective returns, there is very wide individual variability.
“Embedded in that mix of companies, you have some that are just stellar. Their performance turns around [but] half of the firms languish; they continue to perform poorly and eventually de-list or enter bankruptcy.”
What he wondered was whether it was possible to weed out the poor performers and identify the winners in advance.
He therefore sought to develop a simple accounting-based scoring system for evaluating a stock’s financial strength. Piotroski's F-Score looks at value stocks, i.e. the bottom 20% of the market in terms of price to book value, and tests nine variables from a company’s financial statements. One point is awarded for each test that a stock passes. Piotroski regards any stocks that scored eight or nine points as being the strongest. more »
The Piotroski F-Score is a nine-criteria scoring system developed by financial academic, Joseph Piotroski in a famous research paper. Each of the nine points relate to the change in a ratio based on the company's accounts. For a full definition please Read this Article
Stockopedia explains Piotroski F-Score...
Companies with a score of 8 or 9 have been found as a group to outperform weak stocks by 7.5% annually over a 20 year period. The weakest stocks, scoring 2 or lower, were found by Piotroski to be five times more likely to fall into financial problems.
The price-to-book ratio, or P/B ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's book value to its current market price and is a key metric for value investors. Book value denotes the portion of the company held by the shareholders; in other words, the company's assets less its total liabilities. This is calculated as the Current Price divided by the latest annual Book Value Per Share (The inverse ratio is known as book to market). We exclude preferred shares in the calculation of Book Value.
As with most ratios, it varies a fair amount by industry (companies that require more infrastructure capital will usually trade at P/B ratios much lower than, for example, consulting firms). P/B ratios are often used to compare banks, because most assets and liabilities of banks are constantly valued at market values. This version includes intangible assets and goodwill, unlike price to tangible book value. The price / book value ratio rarely falls below 1
Stockopedia explains P/B...
This is a key metric for value investors, whereas growth investors typically believe that book value reveals very little about a company's prospects for future performance.
The price / book value ratio rarely falls below 1.0. As with most ratios, it varies a fair amount by industry (companies that require more infrastructure capital will usually trade at P/B ratios much lower than, for example, consulting firms). P/B ratios are often used to compare banks, because most assets and liabilities of banks are constantly valued at market values.
A company that can't make an ROE greater than its cost of capital may be expected to have a low price to book. Therefore, look for a low PBV combined with a high ROE and low default risk.