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Screening Strategies

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The Screen of Screens

The Screen of Screens is a blended investment approach devised by Stockopedia. It picks stocks that are appearing most frequently across all the 'Guru Screens' tracked by Stockopedia - be they quality, value, momentum, growth or income (excluding short-selling strategies). A stock must be appearing on at least four strategies before it can qualify for the Screen of Screens. Ed Page Croft, CEO of Stockopedia, says: ?One benefit of a blended approach such as the Screen of Screens is that it builds a portfolio exposed to many driving factors of stock returns at once.? By definition, this strategy tends to highlight a list of relatively defensive stocks because they exhibit good fundamentals across a wide range of investing disciplines. The strategy was highlighted in an Financial Times feature by David Stevenson titled: "Stock screens to net the ones that get away". In it he said: "You need to use a website or system that can run the screens for you, and then identify the stocks that come up most often in each of them, which is exactly what Stockopedia has done." more »

Quality Investing
5 Year Return: 52.0%
Charles Kirkpatrick Bargain Screen

Charles Kirkpatrick Bargain is a rules based strategy inspired by US investment strategist Charles Kirkpatrick's work in his excellent Beat the Market. Kirkpatrick has established strategies for finding growth and value stocks. His bargain strategy concentrates on value and momentum factors, with a very precise requirement for the price to sales ratio. Kirkpatrick's testing of of relative price-to-sales ratio rankings found that it was most effective between the 17th and 42nd percentiles in terms of cheapness. Initial testing of the Bargain Model was promising but Kirkpatrick said that several more years of testing were needed before labeling it a success. Kirkpatrick wrote: "As a result of these studies of relative selection methods, I decided to create a new list, called the 'Bargain List' that would incorporate the best triggers found so far and would only include value and price strength." more »

Bargain Stocks
5 Year Return: 51.2%
Value Momentum Screen

Value & Momentum is a strategy that aims to find undervalued stocks with positive price momentum. It is inspired by research by AQR Capital Management as well as the American Association of Individual Investors' "Value on the Move" screen and Jack Hough's "Impatient Value" screen in his book, Your Next Great Stock. The strategy combines value and momentum, which are two disciplines that have been found to work very effectively when combined. It looks for a reasonably low PEG, positive relative strength and a share price within 10% of its 52-week high in companies with sales of more than £100 million. Value and momentum not only provide strong returns but are also negatively correlated. That means that when when one strategy works well, the other lags - one zigs when the other zags. Over time, this helps to create a smoother profit line, as the volatility of each strategy cancels the other out. more »

Momentum Investing
5 Year Return: 50.7%
Dividend Achievers Screen

Dividend Achievers is an income strategy inspired by an index run by Nasdaq OMX. It looks for companies that have grown their cash dividend payouts for at least the past five consecutive years. Apart from the dividend growth streak, this strategy looks for companies with reasonable share trading liquidity, strong cash reserves, a solid balance sheet and a proven record of consistent earnings growth. In his book Beating the Street, investing legend Peter Lynch, said: "The dividend is such an important factor in the success of many stocks that you could hardly go wrong by making an entire portfolio of companies that have raised their dividends for 10 to 20 years in a row." According to M&G Investments, the total cumulative return from the S&P 500 in the 10 years to 2011, with dividends reinvested, was 32%. But the return soared to 136% by investing solely in US companies that had grown their dividends for at least 25 consecutive years. more »

Income Investing
5 Year Return: 50.4%
David Dreman Low PE Screen

David Dreman Low Price to Earnings is a value strategy developed by the renowned US fund manager and author David Dreman in his book Contrarian Investment Strategies. It uses a basic value filter of selecting the cheapest 40% of the market by P/E ratio and filtering further for quality according to company size, financial strength and growth. Dreman favoured the P/E strategy above all others: "Our money management firm uses the low-PE method as it's core strategy, but also utilizes the other 3 contrarian strategies extensively." Dreman's studies showed that the cheapest 20% of the market by P/E outperformed the most expensive 20% by 6.7% annually. It should be cautioned that Dreman's portfolio did suffer in the 2008 financial crisis due to an overweighting of low P/E banks. Dreman though continues to evangelise the power of contrarian investing to counter behavioural biases. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 47.7%
Warren Buffett - Hagstrom Screen

Warren Buffett - Hagstrom is a quality investing strategy inspired by modelling of Warren Buffett's investment approach in books by investment strategist Robert Hagstrom, including The Warren Buffett Way. It is a strategy that combines Buffett's focus on value and business quality. It uses price-to-free cash flow as a valuation measure and assesses quality using operating profit and return on equity. In his book, Robert Hagstrom explains: "Your goal as an investor should be simply to purchase, at a rational price, a part interest in an easily understood business whose earnings are virtually certain to be materially higher, five, ten, and twenty years from now." Remember, Buffett is famous for looking beyond financial measures when examining the quality of a business franchise. more »

Quality Investing
5 Year Return: 47.1%
52 Week High Momentum Screen

52 Week High Momentum is momentum strategy that was explored in a paper called The 52-Week High and Momentum Investing by academics Thomas George and Chuan-Yang Hwang. It capitalises on the positive momentum effect which appears to cause stocks that are at, or close to, their 52 week high prices continuing to outperform. It is believed to work because investors tend to under-react to positive news about previously successful stocks and are reluctant to bid their prices higher, even if the positive news warrants it. When the full impact of the information prevails, and the 52 week high is broken, the market "wakes up" and prices see further gains. George and Hwang wrote: "Our results indicate that the 52-week measure has predictive power whether or not individual stocks have had extreme past returns. This suggests that price level is important, and is consistent with an anchor-and-adjust bias." The original research found that, between 1963 - 2001, the average monthly gain to this strategy assuming a 6 month hold was 0.45% - "about twice as large as those associated with other momentum strategies". more »

Momentum Investing
5 Year Return: 45.4%
Winning Growth & Income

Winning Growth & Income is a dividend investing strategy inspired by an approach used by American investment analyst Kevin Matras in his book, Finding #1 Stocks. It combines growth and dividend factors by sorting the market for high yielding companies with strong growth characteristics. Apart from a high yield, this strategy looks for companies with an above average return on equity, a below average price-to-earnings ratio and where analysts have been upgrading their earnings forecasts. It also looks for companies with a low beta (the sensitivity of a share price to the movement of the market). Kevin Matras says the screen works for investors that are "looking for good companies with solid revenues that pay a good dividend". In some respects, this strategy is a small cap version of the Large Cap Dividend Attraction strategy. In Matra's original strategy criteria he uses Zacks Rank, which is a metric for analysing analyst forecasts. more »

Income Investing
5 Year Return: 44.6%
Martin Zweig Growth Screen

Martin Zweig Growth is a growth at a reasonable price investing strategy based on an approach explained by US investor Martin Zweig in his book, Winning on Wall Street. It combines a focus on growth characteristics, value attraction and market timing. It uses various measures of earnings and sales growth and uses the price-to-earnings ratio as a valuation tool. Zweig's strategy also looks for relatively strong price action. Zweig wrote: "I've found that investors who rely on crystal balls frequently wind up with crushed glass. I'm satisfied if I can predict a market trend, get in tune with it and stay with that trend for as long as it lasts." Zweig was a reputed US money manager back during 1990s as well as an investment newsletter writer. During the 15 years that it was monitored (1980 - 1995), his newsletter returned an average of 15.9% per year. more »

Growth Investing
5 Year Return: 44.0%
Richard Beddard's Nifty Thrifty Screen

Richard Beddard Nifty Thrifty is an investing strategy based on the approach of UK investor and journalist, Richard Beddard of Interactive Investor. It combines quality and value factors using Joel Greenblatt's Magic Formula and Joseph Piotroski's F-Score. The Magic Formula ranks stocks for value and quality using the earnings yield and return on capital as its key metrics. The F-Score is a 9-point checklist of financial health, of which stocks qualifying for this strategy must pass at least 5. Beddard said: "I don't really see how you can be an investor if you're not trying to understand businesses; how they make money, and what makes them go bust." Between June 2010 and December 2014, Beddard's own Nifty Thrifty portfolio had returned 47%. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 42.7%
Greenblatt's Magic Formula

The Magic Formula is a value investing strategy invented by the hedge fund manager Joel Greenblatt in the bestselling and highly recommended Little Book that Beats the Market. It focuses on finding quality value stocks using a blended ranking system (the Magic Formula rank) composed from two fundamental ratios: Return on Capital (which Greenblatt argues is the best determinant of whether a business is a good one) and Earnings Yield (his favoured measure for cheapness). He summarised his philosophy with the maxim "buying cheap stocks at bargain prices is the secret to making lots of money". In the fourth edition of his book Greenblatt claimed the top scoring portfolio of 30 stocks appreciated by 30.8% each year over the previous 17 years, though he stressed that the strategy could underperform during periods of up to two years. Having now sold hundreds of thousands of copies, the "Magic Formula" is credited for reinvigorating the practice of value investing. more »

Quality Investing
5 Year Return: 41.0%
Benjamin Graham Deep Value Checklist

Benjamin Graham Deep Value Checklist is a value investing strategy based on rules suggested by legendary investor, Benjamin Graham, who wrote The Intelligent Investor. The strategy focuses on building portfolios of both large and small value stocks. It involves a 10-point checklist of valuation ratios and financial measures. Ben Graham regarded the most important of those measures to be earnings yield, dividend yield and for total debt to be less than book value. Ben Graham wrote: "Try to buy groups of stocks that meet some simple criterion for being undervalued - regardless of the industry and with very little attention to the individual company. It seems too good to be true, but all I can tell you after 60 years of experience, it seems to stand up under any of the tests I would make up." Societe Generale backtested the strategy to 1992 and found that the group of stocks scoring 9 and 10 on the list returned 37.1% and 48.7% per year respectively. Ben Graham devised the Deep Value Checklist late in his life as a much more systematic approach than his other value investing strategies. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 40.4%
Earnings Upgrade Momentum Screen

Earnings Forecast Upgrades is a momentum strategy set out by US academics Phillip McKnight and Steven Todd in research that examined how analyst forecasts affect share prices. It focuses on finding momentum stocks by highlighting those that are receiving the highest levels of upgraded earnings forecasts from analysts. It looks at both the number of analysts that have raised their forecasts on a share over the past month, and the overall percentage earnings-per-share increase among the consensus of analysts. McKnight and Todd claimed: "Stocks with the greatest number of upwards revisions in earnings, net of downward revisions, earn significantly higher returns than otherwise similar stocks." The researchers examined a portfolio of European shares and found that the 20% with the highest net upward revisions outperformed the lowest 20% by over 16% a year. Earnings upgrades are one way of finding stocks with 'earnings momentum'; those that have received upward earnings revisions are likely to do so again in the future. more »

Momentum Investing
5 Year Return: 36.5%
Neglected Firms Screen

Neglected Firms is a value investing strategy inspired by Ludwig Chincarini and Daehwan Kim in their book, Quantitative Equity Portfolio Management. It uses value and quality measures to find neglected shares that are under-researched by analysts and potentially misunderstood by investors. It looks for companies with low analyst coverage, above average earnings growth and that are cheaply priced according to their price-to-earnings and price-to-book ratios. Chincarini and Kim explain: "It is likely that neglected firm's stock prices do not reflect all the relevant information available and that their prices will react sluggishly to relevant news. This opens a window of time and opportunity for an astute investor to purchase undervalued, neglected stocks and reap the rewards when the market recognizes the stocks' true values." Academic research by Avner Arbel and Paul Strebel found that between 1972 and 1976 comparatively neglected S&P stocks easily outperformed those that were well researched. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 34.3%
Dreman Low Price to Book Screen

This is a low Price to Book based on the writings of David Dreman. He champions a contrarian investment approach based on interpreting market psychology and using value measures to pick stocks that are out of favour with the market. Dreman invests in out-of-favour stocks, often in out-of-favour industries, that he identifies using relatively straightforward metric criteria. "I buy stocks when they are battered. I am strict with my discipline. I always buy stocks with low price-earnings ratios, low price-to-book value ratios and higher-than-average yield. Academic studies have shown that a strategy of buying out-of-favor stocks with low P/E, price-to-book and price-to-cash flow ratios outperforms the market pretty consistently over long periods of time." Dreman warns that the Price to Book strategy in particular may lead to investing in loss-making stocks, at which one needs to be especially careful, and double-checking a company's financial strength is especially important. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 28.6%
Piotroski High F-Score Screen

The Piotroski F-Score Screen is a quality strategy outlined by the famed academic Professor Joseph Piotroski and investigated further in a 2011 paper titled "Identifying expectation errors in Value/Glamour stocks". The strategy hunts for the best quality shares in the market regardless of price. In this version of the screen we have selected the highest scoring stocks in the market using Piotroski's nine-point fundamental checklist called the F-Score. While the F-Score was originally used only for filtering value stocks, Piotroski discovered it was just as effective for filtering glamour stocks: "Firms experiencing the strongest improvement in fundamentals (FSCORE ?7) generate a mean size-adjusted return of 5.5 percent annually". What Piotroski essentially was saying was that the highest scoring stocks returned 5.5% more than the market - these findings have been backed up by independent research by Societe Generale. Perhaps as a result the F-Score has become extremely popular with investors and is a core component of the Stockopedia StockReports. more »

Quality Investing
5 Year Return: 28.4%
John Neff Value Screen

John Neff Value is a value investing strategy based on the rules of successful US fund manager John Neff. It combines demanding value criteria with elements of growth, quality and dividend income. Although he didn't like the term, Neff was a contrarian investor buying good companies with moderate growth and high dividends while out of favour, and selling them once they rose to fair value. One of the tools used by Neff is the Total Return Ratio, which is calculated using the price-to-earnings growth factor (PEG), but adjusted for dividend yield - PEGY. John Neff wrote: "If you buy stocks when they are out of favor and unloved, and sell them into strength when other investors recognize their merits, you'll often go home with handsome gains." During his tenure as manager of Vanguard's Windsor Fund between 1964 and 1995, Neff's average annual total return was 13.7%. more »

Value Investing
5 Year Return: 28.3%
Geraldine Weiss Lite Dividend Screen

Geraldine Weiss Dividends is an income investing strategy based on some of the rules used by US investor Geraldine Weiss. The approach targets large capitalisation companies with relatively high yields, and uses the dividend yield as a measure of value together with quality factors. It buys stocks when their yields are close to their historical highs and then sells them when the yields drift lower. Weiss is reported to use 7 core criteria in her strategy, including a comparison of a stock's historic average yield with its current yield. Weiss said: "Dividends provide a cushion of safety when a stock starts going down. When the stock price drops, the yield gets to very attractive levels, so many investors will step in and buy, reversing the trend of the stock." Weiss has been writing the Investment Quality Trends newsletter since 1966. In January 2000, it began publishing a list of its top 13 picks for the upcoming year. Dubbed "The Lucky 13", these selections have generated a claimed average total annual gain of 15.18%. more »

Income Investing
5 Year Return: 25.9%
PYAD Screen

PYAD is a value and dividend income strategy devised by UK investor and writer, Stephen Bland. It focuses on finding value stocks with relatively high yields and no debt. PYAD is the acronym for the strategy's four filters, which include the Price to Earnings ratio, Yield, Assets (Price to Book Value) and Debt. Specifically, the strategy looks for companies with a Price to Earnings ratio of two-thirds that of the market and a Yield that is 50% above the market average. Stephen Bland says: "My principal aim in this was firstly to minimise the downside before I considered any trading upside to a share. I knew it wouldn't work in every case, there was bound to be the odd failure, but I reckoned that overall it would perform well. I was right and it did, producing handsome returns over the years." The PYAD strategy became well followed by Motley Fool readers. more »

Income Investing
5 Year Return: 25.0%
Buffettology-esque Sustainable Growth Screen

Warren Buffett Sustainable Growth is a quality investing strategy inspired by an interpretation of Warren Buffett's investment approach by Mary Buffett and David Clark in their book, The New Buffettology. It is a strategy that combines Buffett's focus on value and business quality. To work out whether the stock is reasonably valued, the strategy forecasts sustainable earnings growth; the higher that growth rate is, the more likely it is that the company has a durable competitive advantage. The strategy also looks for low debt and a growing earnings yield, return on equity and return on capital employed. In The New Buffettology, Mary Buffett and David Clark explain: "Consistency is everything. Warren is not after a company that occasionally has high returns on shareholders' equity, but one that consistently earns high returns." Remember, Buffett is famous for looking beyond financial measures when examining the quality of a business franchise. more »

Quality Investing
5 Year Return: 23.6%
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