Stockopedia Glossary

© Stockopedia 2017


This guide contains definitions of all the fields available in the screener and table columns. Each ratio in the list below has several fields:

  • Short Name - how the field is labelled in Stockopedia table headings.
  • Long Name - a more common long form version of the field name.
  • Definition - a description of how the field is calculated.
  • Screenable - whether the field can be used in the screener or not
  • Ranks - indicates whether the field is rankable in the screener and whether the rank results are sorted from lowest to highest ( where lowest is best e.g. for PE Ratios where cheaper is better) or from highest to lowest ( where highest is best e.g. for Growth rates ). All Rankings run from zero to 100 with 100 being the highest achievable rank for any given ratio - whether fastest, cheapest or strongest.


Profile

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Name Name

This is the security name - e.g. company name, index name, ETF name etc.

Ticker Ticker

This is the Ticker Symbol used to trade the security on the local stock exchange.

Sector Economic Sector - TRBC

Economic Sector based upon Thomson Reuters Business Classification System (TRBC). There are 10 top level Economic Sectors including: Financials, Basic Materials, Energy, Consumer Defensive, Consumer Cyclical, Telecoms, Utilities, Healthcare, Industrials and Technology.

Industry Grp Industry Group - TRBC

Industry Group according to the Thomson Reuters Business Classification Scheme. There are approximately 145 Industry Groups as contrasted to 10 Economic Sectors.

Exchange Exchange Listing

This is an up to four character field indicating the primary trading market for the company's common stock. The following are valid codes - LON (London Stock Exchange), LSS (London SEATS Market), SEA (AIM Market), OFEX (PLUS Markets)

Flag Exchange Country Flag

This represents the country of the stock market exchange as a flag icon.

Indices Index Memberships

This shows the index membership for the given stock - i.e. whether the company is a part of the FTSE 100, FTSE 350 or FTSE All Share Indices.

Float % Free Float %

This shows the percentage of total Common Shares Outstanding which are freely floated on the stock exchange.

Free Float = Total Shares - Treasury Stocks - Shares held by Strategic Entities). Strategic entities means the shares held by Government Agencies, Corporations, Holding Companies and/or individuals. This is where the shares are held with the intention of gaining market share and/or having control over the company, the idea being that, generally, strategic investors do not primarily intend to earn short term gains from the shares through an increase in share price unlike, say, investment management companies.

Is Primary Listing Is Primary Listing

This indicates whether this instrument is primary listed on its stock exchange. There are many dual listed companies on exchanges around the world who have their primary listing elsewhere. The Value of "Is Primary Listing" is set to either 1 or 0 where 1 indicates a primary listing.

Risk Rating Risk Rating

The Risk Rating is Stockopedia’s classification of the normalised 3 year market volatility of the company’s share price.   We have designed the Risk Rating to be both a useful predictive measure of future volatility, but also a useful predictive factor for accessing the Low Volatility premium.

The five classifications (from least to most volatile) are Conservative, Balanced, Adventurous,  Speculative and Highly Speculative.   At any time 10% of the market will be classified as Conservative, 15% Balanced, 20% Adventurous, 25% Speculative and 30% Highly Speculative.  We use proprietary measures of volatility, which account for the fact that some stocks have shorter histories and/or are traded less frequently than others.

Shares Out Number of Shares Outstanding

The total number of Shares that have been authorized/issued by the company, and purchased by investors. They have voting rights and represent ownership in the corporation by the person or institution that holds the shares. They should be distinguished from treasury stock, which is held by the company.

Size Group Size Group

The Size Group is a classification of a stock according to its relative Market Capitalisation,  based on common heuristic cut offs for what constitutes a large or a small company. Any company with a Market Capitalisation of less than GBP 50 million is classified as a Micro Cap, less than GBP 350 million is a Small Cap, less than GBP 2.5 billion is a Mid Cap and all larger companies are Large Cap.

StockRank Style StockRank Style

The StockRank Styles are an intuitive classification system based on a stock’s exposure to the Quality, Value and Momentum Ranks.  They allow an investor, at a glance, to understand the investibility of a stock and whether it suits their investing style.  

There are four Winning Styles (Super Stocks, High Flyers, Contrarian and Turnaround) and four Losing Styles (Sucker Stock, Momentum Trap, Value Trap and Falling Star).  Some stocks do not fit any style and these are classified as Neutral.


Size

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
EV Enterprise Value (Local Currency / millions)

Enterprise Value represents [[Market Capitalization]] minus Cash and Equivalents plus Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock.

This value is translated into Financial Statements Currency, rather than being in Price Currency.

EV €m Enterprise Value (€ millions)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV $m Enterprise Value ($ m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV £m Enterprise Value (£ Sterling)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV ¥m Enterprise Value (JP¥ m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV A$m Enterprise Value (AU$ m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV C$m Enterprise Value (CA$ m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV INRm Enterprise Value (INR m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

EV S$m Enterprise Value (SG$ m)

Enterprise Value (EV) represents Market Capitalization plus Net Debt, and is a truer reflection of the actual size of a company than Market Cap. More specifically Net Debt includes Total Debt, Minority Interest and Preferred Stock minus Cash and Short Term Investments.

This Enterprise Value is based on the latest available figures for Debt & Cash, i.e. interim figures if these have been published since the annuals.

Mkt Cap Market Cap (Local Currency - millions)

This value is calculated by multiplying the current Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It has been adjusted to match the financial statements currency, where relevant.

Mkt Cap € m Market Cap (€ millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Euros.

Mkt Cap $m Market Cap ($ millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in US Dollars.

Mkt Cap £m Market Cap (£ Sterling - millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Pounds Sterling.

Mkt Cap ¥m Market Cap (JP¥ - millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Japanese Yen.

Mkt Cap A$m Market Cap (AU$- millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Australian Dollars.

Mkt Cap C$m Market Cap (CA$ - millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Canadian Dollars.

Mkt Cap CCYm Market Cap (CCY millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding.

Mkt Cap INRm Market Cap (INR - millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Indian Rupees.

Mkt Cap S$m Market Cap (SG$- millions)

The Market Cap is a measure of a company's size - or specifically its total equity valuation. It is calculated by multiplying the current Share Price by the current number of Shares Outstanding. It is stated in Singapore Dollars.

Sales €m Total Sales (€ - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Euros for all companies.

Sales $m Total Sales (US$ - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in US Dollars for all companies.

Sales £m Total Sales (£ Sterling - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Pounds Sterling for all companies.

Sales £m, Last Yr Total Sales (£ Sterling - millions), Last Year

This is last year's total annual sales, translated in Pounds Sterling for all companies.

Sales ¥m Total Sales (JP¥ - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Japanese Yen.

Sales A$m Total Sales (AU$ Sterling - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Australian Dollars.

Sales C$m Total Sales (CA$ - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Canadian Dollars.

Sales INRm Total Sales (INR - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Indian Rupees.

Sales S$m Total Sales (SG$ - millions)

This is sales over the last 12 months, translated in Singapore Dollars.


StockRanks

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Stock Rank™ Stockopedia StockRank™

The Stockopedia StockRank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) Value Rank

2) Quality Rank

3) Momentum Rank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest Composite StockRank will have the highest score across all 3 contributing ranks.

We discuss the StockRank in depth here.

Quality Rank Stockopedia Quality Rank

The Stockopedia Quality Rank is a blend of ratios and factors pertaining to company cashflow, profitability and stability. The full definition of the Quality Rank is available here.

Value Rank Stockopedia Value Rank

The Stockopedia Value Rank is a weighted blend of traditional value and relative value ratios to rank all stocks in the market between zero (worst) and 100 (best). The full definition of the Value Rank is available here

Momentum Rank Stockopedia Momentum Rank

The Stockopedia MomentumRank is a blend of price and earnings momentum factors. The full definition of the MomentumRank is available here.

Growth Rank Stockopedia Growth Rank

The Stockopedia GrowthRank is a blend of historic and forecast earnings and sales growth ratios. The full definition of the GrowthRank is available here.

QVGM Rank Stockopedia QVGM Rank

The CompositeRank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) ValueRank

2) GrowthRank

3) QualityRank

4) MomentumRank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest CompositeRank will have the highest score across all 4 contributing ranks.

We discuss the CompositeRank in depth here.

QV Rank Stockopedia QV Rank

The Stockopedia QV Rank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) Quality Rank

2) Value Rank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest QV Rank will have the highest score across both contributing ranks.

We discuss the StockRanks in depth here here.

VM Rank Stockopedia VM Rank

The Stockopedia VM Rank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) Value Rank

2) Momentum Rank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest VM Rank will have the highest score across both contributing ranks.

We discuss the StockRanks in depth here here.

QM Rank Stockopedia QM Rank

The Stockopedia QM Rank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) Quality Rank

2) Momentum Rank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest QM Rank will have the highest score across both contributing ranks.

We discuss the StockRanks in depth here here.

GM Rank Stockopedia GM Rank

The Stockopedia GM Rank is an equally weighted combination of Stockopedia's:

1) Growth Rank

2) Momentum Rank

We calculate these ranks for every company in the market, sum them and then re-rank the output from 0 (worst) to 100 (best). The stock showing the highest GM Rank will have the highest score across both contributing ranks.

We discuss the StockRanks in depth here here.


Price Quotes

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
% Price Chg Percent Change

This measures the absolute percentage price performance of the share price over the past day. It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

Ask Ask Price

The 'Ask' Price is the price at which you can buy a share from those willing to sell. It is also known as the 'offer' price. It is to be contrasted with the 'Bid' Price which is the price which potential purchasers are willing to pay.

Bid Bid Price

The 'Bid' Price is the price at which you can sell a share from those willing to buy in the market. It is to be contrasted with the 'Ask' Price which is the price which sellers are quoting.

Change Price Change

This is the change in price for a security on the day since the market opened.

Close Close Price

This is the last quoted price for a security at the close of trading for the day. It is quoted as the previous day's close until the current day's market closes at which point it becomes the current day's close.

High Day's High

This is the highest traded price for a security during the latest day's trading.

Last Price Last Price

This is the market price of the latest trade in this company's shares on the stock exchange. It may be delayed by up to 15 minutes.

Low Day's Low

This is the lowest traded price for a security during the latest day's trading.

Mid Mid Price

This is the exact mid-point of the current bid-ask spread quoted for a security.

Open Open Price

This is the price at which the security first opened trading during the latest day's trading.

Spread (bps) Bid Offer Spread (in basis points)

The Bid-Offer Spread, also known as the Bid-Ask Spread, relates to the quote of the price at which participants in a market are willing to buy or sell a stock or security. The bid price is the price at which a party is willing to purchase, while the ask (or offer) price is the price at which someone is willing to sell.

The Spread is measured in basis points versus the mid-point price. It is calculated as being (ask - bid) / (midpoint price) * 10000.

A basis point is a unit of measure used describe the percentage change in a value. One basis point is equivalent to 0.01% (1/100th of a percent), so 100 basis points is 1 percent.

Trade Date Trade Date

This is the date of the latest set of price quotes.

Trade Time Trade Time

This is the time of the latest price quote.

Volume Volume

The number of shares traded over the last day.


Price History

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
% 10d vs 3m Vol 10 day vs 3 month average volume (%)

This is a proprietary volume metric that aims to assess the recent volume trend. It compares the average daily volume over the last 10 trading days with the average daily volume over the last 3 months expressed as a percentage.

This is calculated as (last 10 trading day volume divided by the average daily volume over the last 3 months) minus 1 * 100, i.e. the ratio will be negative to the extent that the average daily volume over the last 3 months exceeds the last 10 days' trading volume.

% 130d MA Price vs. 130 Day Moving Average (%)

This measures the share price vs. the 130 Day Moving Average (130d MA) expressed as a percentage difference. A negative number indicates a share price trading below the 130d MA

The 130d MA is a long term moving average calculated by dividing the sum of the security's average closing price over the last 130 trading days by 130. It is effectively the 6 month or 26 week moving average.

% 200d MA Price vs. 200 Day Moving Average (%)

This measures the share price vs. the 200 Day Moving Average (200d MA) expressed as a percentage difference. A negative number indicates a share price trading below the 200d MA

The 200d MA is a long term moving average calculated by dividing the sum of the security's average closing price over the last 200 days by 200.

% 50d MA Price vs. 50 Day Moving Average (%)

This measures how far the last close price is from the 50 Day Moving Average. The 50 Day Moving Average is a stock price average over the last 50 days which often acts as a support or resistance level for trading. A negative number indicates a share price trading below the 50d MA

This is calculated as (Close Price - 50 Day MA) / 50 Day MA * 100.

% 50dMA / 200dMA 50d Moving Average vs 200 Day Moving Average

This measures the security's 50 day Moving Average price divided by the 200 day Moving Average price.

Work by Seung-Chan Park has shown that companies whose 50d MA is far above the 200d MA significantly outperform those companies where the 50d MA is below the 200d MA.

% Price Chg 1m % Price Change over last month

This measures the absolute percentage price performance of the share price over the past one month. It is to be contrasted with [[Relative Strength]].

It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% Price Chg 1w % Price Change over last week

This measures the absolute percentage price performance of the share price over the past one week. It is to be contrasted with [[Relative Strength]].

It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% Price Chg 1y % Price Change over last year

This measures the absolute percentage performance of the share price over the past one year. It is to be contrasted with [[Relative Strength]].
It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% Price Chg 3m % Price Change over last 3 months

This measures the absolute percentage performance of the share price over the past three months.

% Price Chg 3y % Price Change over last 3 years

This measures the absolute percentage performance of the share price over the past three years.
It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% Price Chg 5y % Price Change over last 5 years

This measures the absolute percentage performance of the share price over the past five years.
It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% Price Chg 6m % Price Change over last 6 months

This measures the absolute percentage performance of the share price over the past six months.

It is calculated as (Current Price minus Old Price) divided by Old Price x 100.

% vs. 10 Yr High Price vs. 10 Year High %

The Price vs. 10 Yr High indicator compares the current price to the highest price at which the stock has traded at in the last 10 years.

% vs. 52w High Price vs. 52 Week High %

The Price vs. 52 Week High indicator compares the current price to the highest price at which the stock has traded at in the last 52 weeks (12 months), ie. the formula is : Current Price - 52 week High / 52 Week High.

To screen for companies that are within 10% of their 52wk high, the criteria would be Price vs. 52 Week High > -10 (i.e. greater / less negative than -10%). Here's a sample screen that you can fork.

Alternatively, if you wanted to set an alert for when a stock has fallen more than 20% below its high, you would set it for Price vs. 52 Week High < -20. Although the targeted value is numerically greater than 20, because it's a negative number, it needs to be shown as "less than".

% vs. 52w Low Price vs. 52 Week Low %

This compares the current price to the lowest Price the stock has traded at in the last 12 months expressed as a percentage.

To screen for companies that are within 10% of their 52wk Lw, the criteria would be Price vs. 52 Week Low < 10, rather than greater than 90, i.e. it's a comparison rather than a rank. Here's a sample screen that you can fork.

10d Avg Vol 10 Day Average Volume

This is the daily average of the cumulative trading volume for the last 10 days on which there was volume traded for the stock. We look back at most 20 days in order to find the 10 most recent days of trading and, if there are not 10 days of active trading within that period, we return a null figure.

We do this to ensure that the volume information used in the figure is relevant and reflective of current trading conditions on the stock.

200 Day MA 200 Day Moving Average

A 200-day moving average is calculated by taking the closing prices for the last 200 days of any security, summing them together and dividing by 200. The 200 Day Moving Average is a long term moving average that helps determine the overall health of a stock. A stock that is trading below its 200 Day Moving Average is considered to be in a long term downtrend, whereas a stock that is trading above its 200 Day Moving Average is in a long term uptrend. This metric is calculated in the same units and currency as the Quote price for each instrument.

3m Avg Vol 3 Month Average Volume

This is the daily average of the cumulative trading volume during the last three months.

As an example, the 3 month average volume of Vodafone, admittedly a mega-cap, as of May 15th 2015 was 59,376,983.

52W High 52 Week High

This price is the highest Price the stock traded over a 12 month period. It is calculated by taking the Max of all closing prices within the trading year. It doesn't factor in intra-day movements. This field is the same currency and units as the Quote price for this instrument.

52W Low 52 Week Low

This price is the lowest Price the stock traded over a 12 month period. It is calculated by taking the Minimum of all closing prices within the trading year. It doesn't factor in intra-day movements. This field is the same currency and units as the Quote price for this instrument.

Beta Beta (stock)

Beta is a measure of a company's common stock price volatility relative to the market. It is calculated as the slope of the 60 month regression line of the percentage price change of the stock relative to the percentage price change of the relevant index (e.g. the FTSE All Share). Beta values are not calculated if less than 24 months of pricing is available.

You can read more about our calculation here.

Price (Close) Last Close Price

This is the last close price of the company's shares on the relevant stock exchange.

Price 5y CAGR % 5 Year Price CAGR (%)

This measures the average / compound annualised growth of the share price over the past five years.

It is calculated as Current Price divided by Old Price to the power of a 5th, multiplied by 100.

Price Streak No. of years consecutive price history

For how many consecutive years has the company been priced on the stock exchange?

RS 1m Relative Strength, 1 Month

1 month Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last month relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 1w Relative Strength, 1 Week

1 week Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last week relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 1y Relative Strength, 1 Year

1 year Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last year relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 3m Relative Strength, 3 Months

3 month Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last three months relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 3y Relative Strength, 3 Years

3 year Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last three years relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 5y Relative Strength, 5 Years

5 year Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last five years relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

RS 6m Relative Strength, 6 Months

6 month Relative Strength measures a stock's price change over the last 6 months relative to the price change of a market index. It shows the relative outperformance or underperformance of the stock in that timeframe. Different benchmarks are used for different geographic markets which can be reviewed here.

It is calculated dividing the price change of a stock by the price change of the index for the same time period. e.g. A stock falling by 20% versus an index rising 20% would lead to a Relative strength calculation of 100 * ( 80/120 - 1) = -33%

1y Volatility % Annualised Volatility

This is a proprietary measure of the annualised volatility of a company's dailiy share price movement. We adjust volatilities for auto-correlation to ensure stocks with anomalously low trading frequencies do not dominate low volatility ratings.


Growth

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Asset Gwth % Asset Growth %

This measures total assets growth - it is used by James Montier as a criterion for a short screen since it may suggest uncontrolled or managed capital expenditure.

BV 3y CAGR % Book Value - 3 year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Book Value - also known as net asset value - is a statement of the value of the company's assets minus the value of its liabilities. From one perspective, it is the underlying value of a company, not the market capitalisation value dictated by the supply and demand of shares.

BV 5y CAGR % Book Value - 5 year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Book Value - also known as net asset value - is a statement of the value of the company's assets minus the value of its liabilities. From one perspective, it is the underlying value of a company, not the market capitalisation value dictated by the supply and demand of shares.

Capex 3y CAGR % Capital Expenditure - 3 year Compound Annual Growth Rate

This is the compound annualised growth rate of company capital expenditures over the last three years.

Capex 5y CAGR % Capital Expenditure - 5 year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Capital expenditure is funds used to acquire a long-term asset, e.g. buildings, factories, equipment.

Cash 5y CAGR % Cash & Short Term Investments - 5 year Compound Annual Growth Rate

This is the growth in Total Cash plus Short Term Investments over the last 5 years.
This is a 5 year compound growth rate calculated as being: ending net value divided starting value)^/(number of years) - 1.
NOTE: This does NOT include cash equivalents that may be reported under long term assets.

Div Gwth Streak No. of years consecutive dividend growth

For how many out of the last 10 consecutive years has the company grown dividends?

The maximum value for the streak is 9 (since it analyses the growth over the last 10 years).

Div Streak No. of years consecutive dividends paid

The number of consecutive years the company has paid a dividend over the last 10 years (i.e. the maximum is 10).

DPS 10y CAGR % DPS 10y CAGR

This is the average growth in the Dividends Per Share (DPS) for the last 10 years. Dividend per share (DPS) is the total dividends paid out over an entire year (including interim dividends but not including special dividends) divided by the number of outstanding ordinary shares issued.
The CAGR formula is the following: (current year's DPS / DPS 10 years ago) ^ (1/10) - 1
If the starting year's DPS is zero, the CAGR is not defined.

DPS 3y CAGR % Dividend per share - 3 year compound annual growth rate

This is the average growth in the Dividends Per Share (DPS) for the last 3 years. Dividend per share (DPS) is the total dividends paid out over an entire year (including interim dividends but not including special dividends) divided by the number of outstanding ordinary shares issued.
The CAGR formula is the following: (current year's DPS / DPS 3 years ago) ^ (1/3) - 1
If the starting year's DPS is zero, the CAGR is not defined.

DPS 5y CAGR % Dividend per share - 5 year compound annual growth rate

This growth rate is the compound annual growth rate in cash dividends per share of common stock over the last 5 years. Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company.

DPS Gwth % Dividend per share growth %, TTM

This measures the year on year growth of dividend payments by the company. It is calculated on a trailing twelve month basis (i.e. factoring in interims, where available - see this FAQ on TTM).

DPS Gwth % Forecast 1y DPS Growth % Forecast 1y

Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company.

EPS 10y CAGR % Normalised Earnings per Share, 10 Year CAGR

This figure represents the 10 year CAGR (or compound annual growth rate) of the company's diluted EPS (earnings per share).

EPS 3y CAGR % Normalised Earnings per Share, 3 Year CAGR

This growth rate is the compound annual growth rate of Diluted Normalised Earnings Per Share over the last 3 years.

The CAGR formula is the following: (current year's EPS / EPS 3 years ago) ^ (1/3) - 1
NOTE: If less than 3 years are available, a 'NA' (Not Available) code will be used.

EPS 5y CAGR % Normalised Earnings per share, 5 Year CAGR

This figure represents the 5 year Compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of the company's diluted earnings per share (EPS).

EPS Gwth % Earnings per Share Growth %

The Growth in Earnings per share as a percentage change over the last trailing twelve month period. Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability.

EPS Gwth % (Last Year) Earnings per Share Growth %, Last Year

Earnings per share growth is defined as the percentage change in normalised earnings per share over the previous 12 month period to the latest year end. It gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability.

EPS Gwth % 1y Ago Earnings per Share Growth %, 1 Year Ago

The earnings per share ratio divides the net annual earnings of a company into the number of shares. Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability.

EPS Gwth % 2y Ago Earnings per Share Growth %, 2 Years Ago

Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability. One of the important differences vs. net-income growth rates is that EPS growth reflects the dilution that occurs from new stock issuance, the exercise of employee stock options, warrants, convertible securities, and share repurchases. Stocks with higher earnings-per-share growth rates are generally more desirable than those with slower earnings-per-share growth rates.

EPS Gwth % Forecast 1y Earnings Per Share Growth % Forecast 1y

Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability. One of the important differences vs. net-income growth rates is that EPS growth reflects the dilution that occurs from new stock issuance, the exercise of employee stock options, warrants, convertible securities, and share repurchases. Stocks with higher earnings-per-share growth rates are generally more desirable than those with slower earnings-per-share growth rates.

EPS Gwth % Q on PYQ Earnings per Share Growth %, Last Interim Period versus Prior Year Period

This is the year-on-year percentage change in earnings per share for the last quarter (or interim period if the company reports every 6 months), versus the same period one year ago. The earnings per share figure divides the period earnings into the number of shares.
It is based on the diluted normalised EPS, which reflects the normalisation adjustments of the Reuters analysts (in the interests of comparability across the data-set). You can read more about the normalisation process here.
This figure uses weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting period.

EPS Gwth % Q on Q Earnings per Share Growth %, Last Interim Period

This is the percentage change in earnings per share for the last quarter (or interim period if the company reports every 6 months), versus the previous such same period. The earnings per share figure divides the period earnings into the number of shares.

It is based on the diluted normalised EPS, which reflects the normalisation adjustments of the Reuters analysts (in the interests of comparability across the data-set). You can read more about the normalisation process here.

This figure uses weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting period.

EPS Gwth % Rolling 1y Earnings per Share Growth %, Forecast Rolling 1 year

This ratio measure the percentage change in EPS between successive periods. It is a rolling 1 year forecast earnings number based on the consensus of analyst's estimates. It weights this current year and next year's earnings forecasts depending on how far a company is through in its fiscal year.

See this article for further explanation of what we mean by rolling.

EPS Gwth % Rolling 2y Earnings per Share Growth %, Forecast Rolling 2 year

The earnings per share ratio divides the net annual earnings of a company into the number of shares. Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability. One of the important differences vs. net-income growth rates is that EPS growth reflects the dilution that occurs from new stock issuance, the exercise of employee stock options, warrants, convertible securities, and share repurchases. Stocks with higher earnings-per-share growth rates are generally more desirable than those with slower earnings-per-share growth rates.

EPS Gwth Streak No. of years consecutive EPS Growth

For how many out of the last 5 consecutive years has the company grown EPS? This measures the consistency of the company's earnings growth.

Exp. Return (Hist Gwth) Expected Return (Historic Growth)

According to Mary Buffett's "Buffetology", this can be calculated as follows:

  • Calculate the EPS in year 10 by compounding the current EPS by the historical growth rate over the last 10 years.
  • This forecast value can then be multiplied by the 10 year average PE ratio to provide an estimate of the price in year 10.
  • If dividends are paid, an estimate of the amount of dividends paid over the 10-year period should also be added to the year 10 prices.
  • This value can then be compared with the current price to determine if the expected rate of return is greater than Buffett's threshold return of 15%.
Exp. Return (Sust Gwth) Expected Return (Sustainable Growth)

According to Mary Buffett's "Buffettology", the sustainable growth rate can be calculated by:

  • Multiplying the average 10 year rate of return on equity and average retention ratio (1 - average payout ratio) to calculate the implied sustainable growth rate.
  • This rate can then be used to calculate the book value per share in year 10.
  • This in turn determines the 10 year EPS by multiplying the average return on equity by the projected book value per share.
  • To estimate the future price, you would then multiply the earnings by the average price-earnings ratio (plus any dividends) which then (theoretically!) produces the expected return based on the current price.
FCF 5y CAGR % Free Cash Flow, 5 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely paper only expenses. The FCF 5y CAGR is the compound annual growth rate in free cashflow over 5 years.

Graham EPS 10y CAGR % (3y Avg) Diluted EPS (Normalised), 10 Year CAGR (Graham - 3 Yr Avg)

This figure represents the 10 year CAGR (or compound annual growth rate) of the company's diluted EPS (earnings per share) on a Graham basis - this means the growth between the average of years 10/9/8 and years 3/2/1, i.e the oldest 3 year average and the latest 3 year average.

NAV Gwth % Book Value % Growth

Book Value - also known as net asset value - reflects the value of the company's assets minus the value of its liabilities.

NAV LT CAGR % Book Value, Long Term Compound Annual Growth Rate

Book Value - also known as net asset value - is a statement of the value of the company's assets minus the value of its liabilities. From one perspective, it is the underlying value of a company, not the market capitalisation value dictated by the supply and demand of shares.

NAV PS 5y CAGR % Book Value Per Share - 5 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Book Value Per Share - or Net Asset Value Per Share - is a measure of shareholder's equity determined on a per-share basis. Book value per share is calculated by subtracting liabilities and the value of any outstanding preferred stock from assets and dividing the remainder by the number of outstanding shares of stock. Book value per share reflects accounting valuation and not necessarily market valuation. However, should the company go into liquidation, the book value per share is a proxy for the value remaining for common shareholders after all debtors are paid.

Net Profit 5y CAGR % Net Profit, 5 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Net income is the residual income of a firm after adding total revenue and gains and subtracting all expenses and losses for the reporting period.
This is a 5 year compound growth rate calculated as being: ending net value divided starting value)^/(number of years) - 1.

OCF 5y CAGR % Operating Cashflow, 5 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Operating cash flow - or cash flow from operating activities - refers to the amount of cash a company generates from the revenues it brings in, excluding costs associated with long-term capital investment. It is similar to operating profit but excluding non-cash items and accruals. Operating cash differs from free cash flow by excluding the effect of investment activities but it does include payments for taxes or interest as well as changes in working capital (unlike [[EBITDA]]. It does not take into account any cash raised by borrowing or issuing shares (cash flow from financing). In the long-run, a business must be able to make money from its operations.

Op Profit Gwth % Operating Profit Growth %

Operating income growth shows the percentage increase in operating income over the last year. This is calculated on a TTM basis, i.e. comparing TTM versus the prior TTM period.

Operating Profit Gwth %, Last Yr Operating Profit Growth %, Last Year

Operating income growth shows the percentage increase in operating income over the last year.

Sales 3y Avg Sales - 3 Year Average

This is the average sales of the last 3 years.

Sales 3y CAGR % Sales, 3 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Sales growth shows the increase in sales over a specific period of time.

The CAGR formula is the following: (current year's value / value 3 years ago) ^ (1/3) - 1

NOTE: If the starting year's figure is zero, the CAGR is not defined.

Sales 5y CAGR % Sales, 5 Year Compound Annual Growth Rate

Sales growth shows the increase in sales over a specific period of time. The CAGR formula is the following: (current year's value / value 5 years ago) ^ (1/5) - 1

NOTE: If the starting year's figure is zero, the CAGR is not defined.

Sales Gwth % Sales Growth %

Sales growth shows the increase in sales over a specific period of time - this is important because, as an investor, you want to know that the demand for a company's products or services will be increasing in the future. It is important to distinguish however between organic sales growth and acquisitive growth. Growth rates differ by industry and company size. Sales growth of 5-10% is usually considered good for large-cap companies, while for mid-cap and small-cap companies, sales growth of over 10% is more achievable.

Sales Gwth % Q on PYQ Sales Growth %, Last Interim Period vs Prior Year Period

This is the year-on-year percentage change in sales for the last interim period, versus one year ago.
NOTE: This figure uses weighted average of shares outstanding over the reporting period.

Sales Gwth % Q on Q Sales % Growth, Last Interim Period

This is the percentage sales growth in the latest interim period vs the interim period before as a percentage.

Sales Gwth % Rolling 1y Sales Growth %, Rolling 1 Year Forecast

Sales growth shows the increase in sales over a specific period of time - this is important because, as an investor, you want to know that the demand for a company's products or services will be increasing in the future. It is important to distinguish however between organic sales growth and acquisitive growth. Growth rates differ by industry and company size. Sales growth of 5-10% is usually considered good for large-cap companies, while for mid-cap and small-cap companies, sales growth of over 10% is more achievable.

Sales Gwth % Rolling 2y Sales Growth %, Rolling 2 Year Forecast

Sales growth shows the increase in sales over a specific period of time - this is important because, as an investor, you want to know that the demand for a company's products or services will be increasing in the future. It is important to distinguish however between organic sales growth and acquisitive growth. Growth rates differ by industry and company size. Sales growth of 5-10% is usually considered good for large-cap companies, while for mid-cap and small-cap companies, sales growth of over 10% is more achievable.

Sales Gwth Streak No. of years consecutive sales growth

This shows how many years consecutively the company has managed to grow its topline revenues (sales). i.e. Sales Streak = 3 shows that the company has grown its sales for the last 3 consecutive fiscal years.

Shares % Chg Change in Diluted Weighted Average Shares %, Year on Year

The year on year change in a firm's Diluted Weighted Average Shares. If a company has been buying back shares, this number will be negative.

Shares 3y CAGR % Diluted Weighted Average Shares, 3 Year CAGR

The 3 year growth rate of a firm's Diluted Weighted Average Shares. This is a compound growth rate calculated as being Ending Shares Outstanding value divided by the Starting Shares outstanding, to the power of N where N is the number of years (in this case, 3) - 1.

Shares 5y CAGR % Diluted Weighted Average Shares, 5 Year CAGR

The 5 year growth rate of a firm's Diluted Weighted Average Shares. This is a compound growth rate calculated as being Ending Shares Outstanding value divided by the Starting Shares outstanding, to the power of N where N is the number of years (in this case, 5) - 1.


Valuation

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
CAPE (Graham & Dodd P/E) CAPE (Price to 10 Year Average Earnings)

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.

The Graham & Dodds price-to-earnings ratio, commonly known as CAPE or Shiller P/E, is a valuation measure usually applied to stocks or equity markets. It is defined as price divided by the average of ten years of earnings.

Earnings Yield % Earnings Yield ( EBIT / EV )

As defined in the Little Book that Beats the Market, the earnings yield compares the profit generated with the market's valuation of the company. It is defined as operating profit divided by enterprise value.

Many refer to it as the EBIT/EV (Earnings before interest and tax / Enterprise Value)/

Enterprise value is used by Greenblatt rather than market capitaliation to reflect the competing claims of debt and equity holders on the business. This penalizes companies that carry a lot of debt and little cash, and rewards firms with a lot of cash - a useful distinction not reflected in the P/E ratio.

Operating earnings are used instead of net income to eliminate the distortions caused by recognized tax benefits or goodwill write-downs that have very little to do with the company's profitability.

Earnings Yield % Last Yr Earnings Yield ( EBIT / EV ), Last Year

As defined in the Little Book that Beats the Market, the earnings yield compares the profit generated with the market valuation of the company. It is defined as operating profit divided by enterprise value. In a case where the company has a negative Entreprise Value (i.e. it's trading for less than net cash), we use 1 as the Entreprise Value so that the Earnings Yield becomes the Operating Income.

EV / EBIT EV / Operating Profit

EV to Operating Profit (or EV to EBIT) is similar to EV/EBITDA, with which it shares the advantage of valuing a company regardless of its capital structure. It is less commonly used since it doesn't add back depreciation and amortisation. This is calculated on a trailing twelve months basis.

EV / FCF Enterprise Value / Free Cash Flow

Enterprise Value to Free Cash Flow compares the total valuation of the company with its ability to generate cashflow. It is the inverse of the [[Free Cash Flow Yield]]. The lower the ratio of enterprise value to the free cash flow figures, the faster a company can pay back the cost of its acquisition or generate cash to reinvest in its business.

FCF is calculated on a TTM basis.

EV / Sales Enterprise Value / Sales

Enterprise Value/Sales is a financial ratio that compares the total value of the company to its sales.

EV/ EBITDA Enterprise Value to EBITDA

EV/EBITDA stands for [[Enterprise Value]] to Earnings before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation and Amortisation (and Exceptionals). It is similar to - and often used in conjunction with - the [[PE Ratio]] but it is capital structure-neutral by including debt and taking earnings before the payment of interest.

It is calculated on a TTM basis.

Graham Deep Value Score Ben Graham & James Rea Deep Value Score

This is a scoring system developed by Benjamin Graham and aeronautical engineer James Rea. It scores stocks out of 10 depending on how many tests they pass across 5 valuation and 5 risk measures.

Graham Multiplier Benjamin Graham Multiplier

As defined in the Intelligent Investor, the classic book on Value Investing by Benjamin Graham, this ratio is defined as the PE Ratio multiplied by the Price to Book Ratio.

Magic Formula Rank Magic Formula Ranking

This is Stockopedia's version of the Magic Formula as defined in Joel Greenblatt's bestselling book "The Little Book that Beats the Market". You can learn more about the Magic Formula in this article and also in our Magic Formula FAQ.

Magic Formula Rank % Magic Formula Ranking as Percentile

This is Stockopedia's version of Joel Greenblatt's Magic Formula expressed as a perhaps more understandable percentile ranking where zero is worst and 100 is best. For example if you wanted to screen for the 10% best ranking stocks in the market you would set:

Magic Formula Rank % > 90

OCF Yield % Operating Cashflow Yield %

Also known as cash flow-to-enterprise value, this ratio gives us a sense of the amount of cash a company is generating each year relative to the total value (both debt and equity) investors have placed on the firm. All things being equal, the higher this ratio, the more cash a company generates for its investors.

This is calculated on a TTM basis.

P/3y Avg Earnings Price to 3 Year Average Earnings

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/6y Avg Earnings Price to 6 Year Average Earnings

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/B Price to Book Value

The price-to-book ratio, or P/B ratio, is a financial ratio used to compare a company's book value to its current market price and is a key metric for value investors. Book value denotes the portion of the company held by the shareholders; in other words, the company's assets less its total liabilities. This is calculated as the Current Price divided by the latest annual Book Value Per Share (The inverse ratio is known as book to market). We exclude preferred shares in the calculation of Book Value.

As with most ratios, it varies a fair amount by industry (companies that require more infrastructure capital will usually trade at P/B ratios much lower than, for example, consulting firms). P/B ratios are often used to compare banks, because most assets and liabilities of banks are constantly valued at market values. This version includes intangible assets and goodwill, unlike price to tangible book value. The price / book value ratio rarely falls below 1

P/Cash Price to Cash

This ratio compares the share price to the cash per share held by a company on its balance sheet. Please note that firms with positive ratios of cash to price per share may have negative ratios once short-term liabilities are considered.

P/Cash Net of Current Liabs Price to Cash Net of Current Liabilities

Price to Cash net of Current Liabilities is calculated by dividing the Market Capitalisation by Total Cash (i.e. Cash & Short Term Investments) minus Current Liabilities. This ratio will be 0 if the company has net liabilities (i.e. it doesn't have enough cash at hand to cover liabilities falling due within one year) and positive if it has net cash.

P/CF Gwth Price to Cash Flow Growth

Price to Cash Flow Growth is a ratio which is similar to the PEG Ratio but which is focused on cashflow, rather than earnings, growth. It divides the market value by the operating cash flow and then by the cash-flow growth rate. This may be preferable as operating cash flow is less volatile and harder to fake than earnings, although [[EV to Free Cash Flow Growth]] is likely to be better since enterprise value penalizes debt and rewards cash.

P/E Price to Earnings Ratio

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/E 5y Avg Price to Earnings Ratio, 5 Year Average

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]]. For each of 5 years, we take the average share price for each year up to the annual results date, then divide by the average of the EPS for that annual result, and the previous annual result. We then calculate the average of all 5 values.

P/E Forecast 1y Price to Earnings (Normalised) Year

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/E Forecast 2y Price to Earnings (Normalised), One Year Forward

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/E Rolling Price to Earnings Ratio, Rolling

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/E Rolling 1y Price to Earnings Ratio, Rolling 1 Year Forecast

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share. A high P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation.

This is a rolling ratio which means that it weights FY1 and FY2 forecasts depending on how far a company is through its reporting period. This makes apples and oranges more comparable - otherwise you might be comparing one company on a forecast P/E for a company reporting tomorrow with a company reporting in 11 months!

P/E Rolling 2y Price to Earnings Ratio, Rolling 2 Years Forecast

The Price to Earnings Ratio (also called the PE ratio) is the primary valuation ratio used by most equity investors. It is a measure of the price paid for a share relative to the annual net income or profit earned by the firm per share.A hig P/E ratio means that investors are paying more for each unit of net income, so the stock is more expensive compared to one with a lower P/E ratio. The P/E ratio can be seen as being expressed in years, in the sense that it shows the number of years of earnings which would be required to pay back the purchase price, ignoring inflation. Unlike the [[EV/EBITDA]] multiple which is capital structure-neutral, the price-to-earnings ratio reflects the capital structure of the company in question. The reciprocal of the P/E ratio is known as the [[earnings yield]].

P/FCF Price to Free Cash Flow

This is the share price of the company divided by the free cash flow. Free cashflow is the operating cashflow minus capital expenditures. A more detailed definition would be (Earnings before interest and taxes * (1-Tax Rate) + Depreciation & Amortization - Change in Net Working Capital - Capital Expenditure)

P/NCAV Price to Net Current Asset Value

Price to NCAV compares the current price to the [[Net Current Asset Value]] which equals the companies current assets minus its total liabilities. This gives an additional margin of safety versus [[Price to Book Value]] - on this valuation measure, one is essentially paying nothing for all the fixed assets (buildings, machinery, etc0, or any goodwill items that may exist.

P/NCAV, Last Yr Price to Net Current Asset Value, Last Year

Price to NCAV compares the current price to the [[Net Current Asset Value]] which equals the companies current assets minus its total liabilities. This gives an additional margin of safety versus [[Price to Book Value]] - on this valuation measure, one is essentially paying nothing for all the fixed assets (buildings, machinery, etc0, or any goodwill items that may exist.

P/Net Cash Price to Net Cash

The Price to Net Cash ratio is calculated by dividing the Market Capitalisation by Total Cash (i.e. Cash and Short Term Investments) minus Total Debt as at the latest balance sheet. It will be positive if the company has Net Cash, and blank if Total Debt exceeds Total Cash. A value of less than 1 means that Net Cash exceeds the Market Capitalisation, i.e. this is a negative Entreprise Value company.

P/Net Debt Price to Net Debt

Price to Net Debt (or Cash) ratio. This ratio Is negative if the company has net debt and positive if it has net cash. This will be based on the latest financial statements and it's important to be aware of post-balance sheet event that may have reduced the cash balance, eg. an acquisition.

P/NNWC Price to Net Net Working Capital

Price to Net Net Working Captal compares the Price to Benjamin Graham's valuation measure, [[Net Net Working Capital]] which is defined as Cash + Short Term Marketable Investments + Accounts Receivable * 75% + Inventory * 50% of Total Liabilities

P/OCF Price to Operating Cash Flow

A valuation metric that compares a company's market price to its level of annual operating cash flow. This is similar to the valuation measure of price-to-free cash flow but uses a looser measure of cash flow, by not deducting capital expenditures.

Operating cash flow, aka. "cash inflow from operating activities", is the amount of actual cash made by a company's business. It is similar to operating profit but without the accruals.

P/PTE Price to Pre Tax Earnings

Price to Pre-Tax Profit per share ratio, is defined as the company's market capitalisation divided by the pre-tax profit. Pre-tax profit is operating profit minus interest and any other non-operating expenses (except taxes).

The formula is as follows: Market cap. / Pre tax profit (TTM).

This ratio is calculated on a TTM basis - see here for more explanation as to why we prefer TTM ratios.

P/R Price to Research Ratio

Price to Research is R&D expenditure divided by market capitalisation. The price-to-research ratio is of most importance in research based businesses, such as pharmaceutical companies and can be useful for identifying research-led businesses that are investing significantly in development. However, a large amount of spending on R&D does not necessarily mean future profits are assured.

P/S Price to Sales Ratio

A price-to-sales ratio, or a stock's market price per share divided by the revenue generated by sales of the company's products and services per share. Some argue that, since sales figures are less easy to manipulate than either earnings or book value, the price-to-sales ratio is a more reliable indicator of how the company is doing. However, this measure was misused during the dot com years to promote companies with no earnings or profits.

This ratio is calculated on a Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) basis.

P/S, Last Yr Price to Sales, Last Year

A price-to-sales ratio, or a stock's market price per share divided by the revenue generated by sales of the company's products and services per share. Some argue that, since sales figures are less easy to manipulate than either earnings or book value, the price-to-sales ratio is a more reliable indicator of how the company is doing. However, this measure was misused during the dot com years to promote companies with no earnings or profits.

This ratio is calculated on a Last Reported Annual basis, rather than a Trailing Twelve Months (TTM) basis.

P/TB Price to Tangible Book Value

This ratio is calculated by dividing the latest Price Close by [[Tangible Book Value per share]]. This ratio gives an idea of whether an investor is paying too much for what would be left if the company went into liquidation as it represents the hard assets of the company.

PEG Price / Earnings to Growth

The PEG ratio (Price/Earnings to Growth ratio) is calculated by taking the historic Price to Earnings Ratio (based on last year's diluted normalised Earnings) and dividing it by the consensus forecast EPS growth for the next year.

Unlike the [[Slater]] PEG Ratio or the Rolling PEG Ratio, this version does not use rolling PE ratio and growth rates, or incorporate the additional restriction that a companies must have 4 consecutive growth periods.

PEG (5y Gwth) Price / Earnings to 5 year Growth Rate
PEG Rolling Price / Earnings to Growth Ratio, Rolling

The PEG ratio (Price/Earnings to Growth ratio) is a valuation metric used to measure the trade-off between a stock's price, its earnings per share (EPS), and the expected growth of the company. This figure is calculated using the current rolling PE ratio and dividing it by the 12 month forward rolling eps growth rate, if positive. If the forecast growth is negative, there will be no PEG.

This is distinct from the historic PEG and the Slater PEG which use slightly different definitions.

PEG Slater Price / Earnings to Growth ( Jim Slater Definition)

Jim Slater defined his own version of the Price Earnings Growth (PEG) ratio in the book 'The Zulu Principle. This version uses both forecast [[rolling PE ratio]] and forecast eps growth rates, and incorporates the additional restriction that a companies must have 4 consecutive growth periods, albeit potentially including two forecast periods.

PEGR Rolling Price / Earnings to Growth (Risk Adjusted), Rolling

The PEGR is the PEG ratio adjusted for risk. It is calculated as the Rolling PEG Ratio multiplied by the [[Beta]] of the share price.

PEGY Price / Earnings to Growth + Yield

The PEGY is also known as the Price/Earnings to Growth and Dividend Yield Ratio or Dividend-yield adjusted PEG Ratio.

PEGY Rolling Price / Earnings to Growth + Yield, Rolling

The PEGY is also known as the Price/Earnings to Growth and Dividend Yield Ratio or Dividend-yield adjusted PEG Ratio - this is used by Peter Lynch and inversely by John Neff (who calls it the total return ratio). For stocks that pay a substantial dividend, the PEGY may be an even better measure than PEG. As with the PEG, the numbers are based on consensus analyst forecasts and therefore subject to forecasting errors. This version uses the rolling current PE Ratio and Dividend YIeld with 12m forward rolling EPS Growth rate.

Price to Cash Net of Burn Price to Cash Net of Burn

This is the Cash Burn over the last year, for all companies that are generating negative free cash flow. If they are generating positive free cash blow, the cash burn will be zero.

R&D % Growth Research & Development Growth %

This is the growth in Research and Development spending over the last 12 months.

R&D to Assets Research & Development to Assets

This is calculated as R&D expenditures divided by total assets. R&D expense is not always broken out in a company's financials, however, so this value may be n/a in those cases.

R&D to Sales Research & Development to Sales

This is calculated by dividing Research & Development Expense by total sales or revenue. R&D expense is not always broken out in a company's financials, however, so this value may be n/a in those cases.


Profitability

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Accrual Ratio Accrual Ratio

The accrual ratio is a way to identify firms with low non-cash or accrual-derived earnings relative to their cash flow.

The formula is (net income - free cash flow), divided by total assets.

When free cash flow is greater than net income, cash earnings are higher than accrual earnings, and the accrual ratio is negative (good).

CROIC %, Last Year Cash Return On Invested Capital %, Last Year

Cash Return On Invested Capital (CROIC or CROCI) measures how much cash a company cgenerate based on each dollar it invests into its operations. It is similar to ROIC but focuses on cash, rather than profits. CROIC = Free Cash Flow divided by Invested Capital.

Invested Capital in turn is calculated as Total Equity + Total Liabilities - Current Liabilities - Excess Cash (using the Greenblatt definition of Excess Cash as cash at hand in excess of 5% of revenues).

FCF LT/Assets Long Term Average Free Cashflow to Assets

This is the average cashflow over the last 5 years, scaled by total assets.

FCF/ Sales % Free Cash Flow to Sales %

Free cash flow to sales is a valuation ratio that measures a company's surplus cash flow against sales revenues. The ratio indicates how much of a company's revenue is transformed into cash.

Gross Mgn % Gross Profit Margin %

This value measures the percent of revenue left after paying all direct production expenses. It is calculated as annual Total Revenue minus annual Cost of Goods Sold divided by annual Total Revenue and multiplied by 100. NOTE: This item is only available for Industrial and Utility companies.

Gross Mgn % 5yr Avg Gross Profit Margin %, 5 Year Average

This value measures the percent of revenue left after paying all direct production expenses. It is calculated as annual Total Revenue minus annual Cost of Goods Sold divided by annual Total Revenue and multiplied by 100. NOTE: This item is only available for Industrial and Utility companies.

Gross Mgn % PTTM Gross Profit Margin %, Prior Trailing 12m

This value measures the percent of revenue left after paying all direct production expenses. It is calculated as annual Total Revenue minus annual Cost of Goods Sold divided by annual Total Revenue and multiplied by 100. NOTE: This item is only available for Industrial and Utility companies.

Gross Profit to Assets Gross Profit to Assets

Gross profit is sales less the cost of sales or cost of goods sold (COGS). It only nets off the cost of the materials or labor used to make the products sold or the services delivered. In this ratio, it is scaled by total assets.

Net Mgn % Net Profit Margin %

Also known as Return on Sales, this value is the [[Net Income]] divided by [[Sales]] for the same period and expressed as a percentage. This is one of the best indicators of the company's efficiency because net profit takes into consideration all expenses of the company. Investors want the net profit margin to be as high as possible.

Net Mgn % 1y Ago Net Profit Margin %, 1 Year Ago

Also known as Return on Sales, this value is the [[Net Income]] divided by [[Sales]] for the same period and expressed as a percentage. This is one of the best indicators of the company's efficiency because net profit takes into consideration all expenses of the company. Investors want the net profit margin to be as high as possible.

Net Mgn % 5y Avg Net Profit Margin %, 5 Year Average

Also known as Return on Sales, this value is the [[Net Income]] divided by [[Sales]] for the same period and expressed as a percentage.

Net Mgn % PTTM Net Profit Margin %, Prior Trailing 12m

Also known as Return on Sales, this value is the [[Net Income]] divided by [[Sales]] for the same period and expressed as a percentage. This is one of the best indicators of the company's efficiency because net profit takes into consideration all expenses of the company. Investors want the net profit margin to be as high as possible.

Op Mgn % Operating Profit Margin %

Operating profit margin, also known as return on sales (ROS) is the ratio of operating profit (the amount that is left over after the variable costs of production such as wages, and raw materials have been paid) divided by sales. A healthy operating margin is required for a company to be able to pay for its fixed costs, such as interest on debt.

Op Mgn % 5y Avg Operating Profit Margin %, 5 Year Average

This is the average operating margin over the last 5 years. Operating profit margin, also known as return on sales (ROS) is the ratio of operating profit (the amount that is left over after the variable costs of production such as wages, and raw materials have been paid) divided by sales. A healthy operating margin is required for a company to be able to pay for its fixed costs, such as interest on debt.

ROA % Return on Average Assets %

Calculated by dividing a company's annual earnings by its average total assets, ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings.

ROA % 5y Avg Return on Average Assets, 5 Yr Average %

Calculated by dividing a company's annual earnings by its average total assets, ROA gives an idea as to how efficient management is at using its assets to generate earnings.

ROC % Greenblatt Return on Capital ( Joel Greenblatt Definition)

Return on Capital is used by Joel Greenblatt in his Magic Formula to measure the rate of return a business is making on the total capital used in the business. His definition uses EBIT / ([[Net Working Capital]] + [[Net Fixed assets]]).

ROC % Greenblatt 5y Avg Return on Capital, 5 Yr Average

Return on Capital is used by Joel Greenblatt in his Magic Formula to measure the rate of return a business is making on the total capital used in the business. His definition uses EBIT / ([[Net Working Capital]] + [[Net Fixed assets]]). Companies that can earn a high ROC over time generally have a special advantage that keeps competition from destroying it. This field is the 5 year average of the ROCE.

ROCE % Return on Capital Employed %

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) compares earnings with capital invested in the company. It is similar to Return on Assets, but takes into account sources of financing.

We calculate this as Operating Income (more or less EBIT) divided by Capital Employed which we define as Fixed Assets + Working Capital or, said another way, Total Assets minus Total Current Liabilities. So, in the case of Vodafone, for example, on a TTM basis, the calculation for 2013 would be:

  • TTM Operating Income 4,728
  • Total Assets, Latest Reported: 142,698
  • Total Current Liabilities, Latest Reported: 31,224
  • ROCE, TTM: 4.24%

For the avoidance of doubt, this operating income number is stated post exceptionals because of the scope for manipulation and/or managerial subjectivity and discretion in the exceptional items number (companies tend to highlight exceptional losses but not exceptional gains).

It is also post the amortisation of intangibles, and intangibles are correspondingly included in the capital employed figure (this is debatable and there's a good Signet discussion piece on it here - but it's worth remembering that not all intangibles are goodwill and do often relate to the productive capacity of the firm). We also provide Greenblatt ROC which measures the return on tangible capital only.

ROCE % 5y Avg Return on Capital Employed, 5 Yr Average

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) compares earnings with capital invested in the company. It is similar to [[Return on Assets]], but takes into account sources of financing. NOPAT is equal to EBIT * (1 - tax) -- the return on the capital employed should be measured in after tax terms. The main drawback of ROCE is that it measures return against the book value of assets so, as these are depreciated, the ROCE will increase even though cash flow is constant. This is not the case with [[ROIC]].

ROCE % PTTM Return on Capital Employed, Prior Trailing 12m

Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) compares earnings with capital invested in the company. It is similar to Return on Assets, but takes into account sources of financing.

We calculate this as Operating Income (more or less EBIT) divided by Capital Employed which we define as Fixed Assets + Working Capital or, said another way, Total Assets minus Total Current Liabilities.

ROCE LT Avg Return on Capital, Long Term Average

Return on Capital is used by Joel Greenblatt in his Magic Formula to measure the rate of return a business is making on the total capital used in the business. His definition uses EBIT / ([[Net Working Capital]] + [[Net Fixed assets]]). Companies that can earn a high ROC over time generally have a special advantage that keeps competition from destroying it.

ROE % Return on Equity

Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. The DuPont formula is a common way to break down ROE into three important components. Essentially, ROE will equal the net margin multiplied by asset turnover multiplied by financial leverage.

It is defined as Income available to Common Shareholders (excl Extraordinaries) divided by the Average Book Value over the period.

ROE % 2y Ago Return on Equity, 2 Years Ago

Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. The DuPont formula is a common way to break down ROE into three important components. Essentially, ROE will equal the net margin multiplied by asset turnover multiplied by financial leverage.

ROE % 5y Avg Return on Equity, 5 Yr Average

Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. This is the average ROE over the last five years.

ROE % PPTTM Return on Equity, 2 year Prior Trailing 12m

Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. The DuPont formula is a common way to break down ROE into three important components. Essentially, ROE will equal the net margin multiplied by asset turnover multiplied by financial leverage.

ROE % PTTM Return on Equity, Prior Trailing 12m

Return on equity reveals how much profit a company earned in comparison to the total amount of shareholder equity found on the balance sheet. The DuPont formula is a common way to break down ROE into three important components. Essentially, ROE will equal the net margin multiplied by asset turnover multiplied by financial leverage.

ROIC % Return on Invested Capital %

A measure of how efficiently a company generates cash flow compared to how much capital is invested in the company. Companies seek to have a return on investment capital greater than its cost of capital.

It is calculated by taking its net operating profit after taxes and dividing by the total amount of capital invested (Invested Capital) and expressing the result as a percentage. Invested Capital in turn is calculated as Total Equity + Total Liabilities - Current Liabilities - Excess Cash (using the Greenblatt definition of Excess Cash as cash at hand in excess of 5% of revenues).


Dividends

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Div Cover Dividend Cover

Dividend cover is the ratio of company's net income over the dividend paid to shareholders, calculated as earnings per share divided by the dividend per share. It helps indicate how sustainable a dividend is. Dividend Cover of less than 1.5 may indicate a danger of a dividend cut while more than 2 is viewed as healthy. The inverse of dividend cover is the [[Payout Ratio]].

Div Cover Rolling Dividend Cover, Rolling

Dividend cover is the ratio of company's net income over the dividend paid to shareholders, calculated as earnings per share divided by the dividend per share. It helps indicate how sustainable a dividend is. The inverse of dividend cover is the Payout Ratio.

See this article for further explanation of what we mean by rolling.

Div Cover Rolling 1y Dividend Cover, Rolling 1 year forecast

Dividend cover is the ratio of company's net income over the dividend paid to shareholders, calculated as earnings per share divided by the dividend per share. It helps indicate how sustainable a dividend is. The inverse of dividend cover is the Payout Ratio.

See this article for further explanation of what we mean by rolling.

Div History Has a dividend ever been paid?

This field counts whether the company paid a dividend in the last 5 years.

DPS Dividend per share

Dividends per share is the amount amount of dividend payment that a shareholder receives for each share held. It can be calculated by taking the total amount of dividends paid and dividing it by the total shares outstanding.

DPS 5y Avg Dividend per share - 5 year average

Dividends per share is the amount amount of dividend payment that a shareholder receives for each share held. It can be calculated by taking the total amount of dividends paid and dividing it by the total shares outstanding. This is the average dividend per share paid over the last 5 years.

DPS Decreases Number of dividend per share decreases in last 10 years

This is the number of times that the dividend per share has been decreased during the last ten financial years.

DPS Gwth % 1y Ago Dividend per share growth %, 1 year ago

Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company.

DPS Gwth % 2y Ago Dividend per share growth %, 2 years ago

Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company.

DPS Gwth %, Last Yr DPS % Growth, Last Year

This measures the year on year growth of dividend payments by the company.

DPS Increases Number of dividend per share increases in last 10 years

This is the number of times that the dividend per share has been increased during the last ten financial years.

DPS Rolling 1y Dividend per share Rolling 1 year forecast

Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company. However, some companies do not pay stock dividends at all; rather they use these excess profits to reinvest money back into the company to accelerate growth.

DPS Rolling 2y Dividend per share Rolling 2 year forecast

Dividend growth is a good indicator of the financial health of a company. However, some companies do not pay stock dividends at all; rather they use these excess profits to reinvest money back into the company to accelerate growth.

Payout Ratio % Dividend Payout Ratio %

The payout ratio measures the amount of earnings paid out in dividends to shareholders. It is calculated as DPS / EPS. Investors can use the payout ratio to determine what companies are doing with their earnings. Investors seeking high current income and limited capital growth prefer companies with high Dividend payout ratio. However investors seeking capital growth may prefer lower payout ratio if capital gains are taxed at a lower rate. High growth firms in early life generally have low or zero payout ratios. As they mature, they tend to return more of the earnings back to investors. The inverse of the payout ratio is Dividend Cover, which is a more popular metric in the UK.

Yield % Dividend Yield %

The dividend yield shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. It is calculated as the historic or consensus forecast Annual Dividend per Share, divided by the current Price, multiplied by 100, and is stated on a net, rather than gross, basis.

Yield % 5y Avg Dividend Yield % - 5 Year Average

The 5 year average of the dividend yield is calculated by taking the average of 5 years yields. Each annual yield is calculated by taking the average of the forecast and historic yield and dividing by the midpoint between the high and low share price.

Yield % 5y High Avg (Weiss) Dividend Yield % - 5 Year Average of Highs (Geraldine Weiss)

The dividend yield or the dividend-price ratio on a company stock is the company's total annual dividend payments divided by its market capitalization, or the dividend per share, divided by the price per share. In this case, it is the average dividend payment over the last five years divided by the average market capitalisation in each year. Comparing this yield versus the current yield may give an indication as to whether the stock is undervalued.

Yield % Rolling Dividend Yield % Rolling

The dividend yield shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. It is calculated as the historic or consensus forecast Annual Dividend per Share, divided by the current Price, multiplied by 100. This measure uses a combination of historic and current year forecast dividend per share to calculate the 'rolling current' dividend. For a precise definition of this calculation please refer to this help page.

Yield % Rolling 1y Dividend Yield % Rolling, 1 Year Forecast

The dividend yield shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. The rolling forecast yield is calculated using a blend of current year and next year's consensus forecast dividend per share, divided by the current Price, multiplied by 100. For a precise definition of this calculation please refer to this help page.

Yield % Rolling 2y Dividend Yield % Rolling, 2 Years Forecast

The dividend yield shows how much a company pays out in dividends each year relative to its share price. In the absence of any capital gains, the dividend yield is the return on investment for a stock. This 2 year forecast rolling yield is calculated using a blend of next year and the year after's consensus forecast dividend per share, divided by the current Price, multiplied by 100. For a precise definition of this calculation please refer to this help page.


Financial Strength

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Altman Z Score (1) Altman Z1-Score

The Z-Score is a shorthand to describe the financial health of a company, and its likelihood of financial distress. If the Z Score is falling towards 1.8 then it may be a sell signal. Z1 is the Z-Score for manufacturing companies and this version is calculated based using the latest available interim financials.

Altman Z Score (2) Altman Z2-Score

The Z-Score is a shorthand to describe the financial health of a company, and its likelihood of financial distress. If the Z Score is falling towards 1.8 then it may be a sell signal. Z2 is the Z-Score for non-manufacturing companies (but excluding property/financial companies) and this version is calculated based using the latest available interim financials.

Assets / Equity Assets to Equity Ratio

The asset/equity ratio shows the relationship of the total assets of the firm to the portion owned by shareholders. This ratio is an indicator of the company’s leverage (debt) used to finance the firm.

Assets/Equity, Last Year Assets to Equity Ratio, Last Year

This is the proportion of Assets vs Equity on the latest annual balance sheet. It is a measure of the financial leverage of the company.

Beneish M Score Beneish M-Score

The M-Score is a mathematical model created by Professor Beneish that uses eight financial ratios to identify whether a company may have manipulated its earnings figures for reporting purposes. You can read a more detailed description of the Beneish M-Score here.

This version is based on the Trailing Twelve Month results - we also have a version based on annual results only, which may be more reliable given the sometimes sparse nature of interim reporting.

Beneish M Score 1y Ago Beneish M-Score, 1 Year Ago

The M-Score is a mathematical model that uses eight financial ratios to identify whether a company may have manipulated its earnings. It is based on research from Professor Messod Beneish.

Beneish M Score 2y Ago Beneish M-Score, 2 Years Ago

The M-Score is a mathematical model that uses eight financial ratios to identify whether a company may have manipulated its earnings. It is based on research from Professor Messod Beneish.

Beneish M Score, Last Yr Beneish M-Score, Last Year

The M-Score is a mathematical model created by Professor Beneish that uses eight financial ratios to identify whether a company may have manipulated its earnings figures for reporting purposes.

You can read a more detailed description of the Beneish M-Score here.

Cash / Assets Cash to Assets Ratio

This measures the proportion of a company's assets that are made up for cash and short term investments. It is more commonly used to analyse funds and investment trusts.

Current Ratio Current Ratio

This is the ratio of Total Current Assets divided by Total Current Liabilities for the same period. NOTE: This item is Not Available (NA) for Banks, Insurance companies and other companies that do not distinguish between current and long term assets and liabilities.

Debt To Assets Debt To Assets
FCF / LT Debt Free Cash Flow to Long Term Debt

This ratio measures the sustainability of the debt structure based on available free cash flow.

FCF / LT Debt PTTM Free Cash Flow to Long Term Debt, Prior TTM

This ratio measures the sustainability of the debt structure based on available free cash flow.

Gearing % Net Debt to Equity

Also known as Net Gearing, this is a measure of a company's financial leverage calculated by dividing its net liabilities by stockholders' equity. The formula is : (Total Debt - Cash) / Book Value of Equity (incl. goodwill and intangibles)

It uses the book value of equity, not market value as it indicates what proportion of equity and debt the company has been using to finance its assets.

If the value is negative, then this means that the company has net cash, i.e. cash at hand exceeds debt.

Gearing % ex Intan. Net Debt to Tangible Equity

Also known as Net Gearing, this is a measure of a company's financial leverage calculated by dividing its net liabilities by stockholders' equity.

The formula is : Net Debt - Cash / (Book Value of Equity - Intangibles)

It uses the book value of equity, not market value as it indicates what proportion of equity and debt the company has been using to finance its assets.

Gearing inc Pension Dfct % Gearing inc Pension Deficit %

The Net Gearing inc Pension Deficit ratio shows the Net Gearing of a company once the Pension Deficit (or Surplus) has been taken into account. It is computed as Net Debt, plus the Pension Deficit, divided by Book Value. The figure is as of the most recent set of annual accounts.

Gross Gearing % Gross Gearing %

Also known as Gearing, this is a measure of a company's financial leverage calculated by dividing its total liabilities by stockholders' equity.

The formula is : Total Debt / Book Value of Equity

It uses the book value of equity, not market value as it indicates what proportion of equity and debt the company has been using to finance its assets. It includes intangibles.

Gross Gearing % (ex Intan) Gross Gearing % (excluding Intangibles)

This is a measure of a company's financial leverage calculated by dividing its total liabilities by stockholders' equity.

The formula is : Total Debt / (Book Value of Equity - Goodwill and intangibles)

It uses the book value of equity, not market value as it indicates what proportion of equity and debt the company has been using to finance its assets.

Gross Gearing inc Pension Dfct % Gross Gearing inc Pension Deficit %

The Gross Gearing inc Pension Deficit ratio shows the Gross Gearing of a company once the Pension Deficit (or Surplus) has been taken into account. It is computed as Total Debt, plus the Pension Deficit, divided by Book Value. The figure is as of the most recent set of annual accounts.

Interest Cover Interest Cover

Also known as Times Interest Earned, this is the ratio of Operating Income for the most recent year divided by the Total Non-Operating Interest Expense, Net for the same period.

If Total Interest Expense, Net for the period is less or equal 0 (i.e. the equivalent of Interest Income), then we set Interest Coverage to a value of 100x - this is somewhat arbitrary but it ensures that these companies will also pass a high interest coverage screen.

If a company is loss-making, we still calculate this ratio - the figure will therefore be negative.

NOTE: This item is not meaningful for Banks and Insurance companies.

You can read more about it here in the FAQ Centre.

Long Term Debt Long Term Debt

Long-Term Debt represents debt with maturities beyond one year. Long-Term Debt may consist of long-term bank borrowings, bonds, convertible bonds, etc.

Long-Term Debt includes: 1) Bonds (convertible or not; secured and unsecured), debentures, long-term bank borrowings, long-term notes payable, mortgage loans, senior debt, subordinated notes 2) Debts/borrowings from or notes payable to shareholders, officers, directors, employees 3) Financial Derivatives for Financial Companies

Long-Term Debt excludes: 1) Commercial paper in banks when liabilities of a company are not delineated between current and non- current.

LT Debt / Assets Long Term Debt to Assets

The long term debt-to-assets ratio is a measure of the financial leverage of the company. It tells you what percentage of the assets is financed by long term debt. Long-term debt is debt due for repayment in over 12 months and is not included in the current liabilities figure on the balance sheet. It includes mortgages and long-term leases, but not general trading liabilities.

LT Debt / Avg Assets Long Term Debt to Average Assets
LT Debt / Equity Long Term Debt to Equity

The ratio is calculated by taking the company's long-term debt and dividing it by the book value of common equity. The greater a company's leverage, the higher the ratio. Generally, companies with higher ratios are thought to be more risky.

Montier C-Score Montier 'Cooking the Books' C-Score

James Montier aimed to create a simple scoring system that would highlight companies that may be 'cooking the books'. The C-Score was the result.

An analogue to the Piotroski, it measures six inputs in a binary fashion to create a score between zero and six. Inputs include: the divergence between net income and cash-flow, increasing days sales outstanding, increasing days sales of inventory, increasing current assets to revenues, declining depreciation relative to PPE and high total asset growth.

Net Debt / Price Net Debt to Market Cap

This is the ratio of Net Debt to the Market Capitalisation of the company. This ratio Is negative if the company has net debt and positive if it has net cash. This will be based on the latest financial statements and it's important to be aware of post-balance sheet event that may have reduced the cash balance, e.g. an acquisition.

Net Debt / Tang Assets Net Debt to Tangible Assets

Net Debt to Tangible Assets is a measure of the extent to which a company's assets are financed by debt. It is, therefore, a measure of its financial risk - the higher the ratio, the greater risk will be associated with the firm's operation. In addition, high debt to assets ratio may indicate low borrowing capacity of a firm, which in turn will lower the firm's financial flexibility.

This version excludes intangibles and goodwill.

Pension Dfct / Mkt Cap % Pension Deficit to Market Cap %

This shows the ratio of a Pension Deficit to the Market Cap of the associated company. It is computed by dividing the Plan Deficit by the company's Market Cap. The Deficit is as of the most recent set of annual accounts and the Market Cap is the current Market Cap.

Piotroski F-Score Piotroski F-Score

The Piotroski F-Score is a nine-criteria scoring system developed by financial academic, Joseph Piotroski in a famous research paper. Each of the nine points relate to the change in a ratio based on the company's accounts. For a full definition please Read this Article

Tang. Assets/Equity Tangible Assets to Equity Ratio

This is the proportion of Tangible Assets vs Equity on the latest annual balance sheet. It is a measure of the financial leverage of the company.


Analyst Forecasts

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Change in Cons. Rec. 1m Change in Consensus Recommendation

This is the change in the consensus recommendation over the last month. The value is defined using the rather unintuitive number based system from Thomson Reuters where 1= strong buy, and 5 = strong sell. (The full range is: strong buy, outperform, hold , underperform, strong sell)

Negative numbers for this change in recommendation indicate improving sentiment.

  • e.g. Change in Cons. Rec = 4, this indicates that in the last month the Cons. Rec has gone from strong buy to strong sell (1 to 5)
  • e.g. Change in Cons. Rec = -1, this indicates that in the last month the Cons. Rec has moved towards buy by a single step. If it was a strong sell, the stock may now be an 'underperform'. If it was a hold, the stock may now be an 'outperform'

A consensus recommendation for an individual stock compiles ratings from a number of analysts who track that stock. The recommendation is expressed as a median of the separate recommendations.

Change in Cons. Rec. 3m Change in Consensus Recommendation 3m

This is the change in the consensus recommendation over the last month. The value is defined using the rather unintuitive number based system from Thomson Reuters where 1= strong buy, and 5 = strong sell. (The full range is: strong buy, outperform, hold , underperform, strong sell)

Negative numbers for this change in recommendation indicate improving sentiment.

  • e.g. Change in Cons. Rec = 4, this indicates that in the last month the Cons. Rec has gone from strong buy to strong sell (1 to 5)
  • e.g. Change in Cons. Rec = -1, this indicates that in the last month the Cons. Rec has moved towards buy by a single step. If it was a strong sell, the stock may now be an 'underperform'. If it was a hold, the stock may now be an 'outperform'

A consensus recommendation for an individual stock compiles ratings from a number of analysts who track that stock. The recommendation is expressed as a median of the separate recommendations.

Scaled Earnings Surprise Scaled Earnings Surprise

Scaled unexpected earnings is a means of comparing the level of earnings surprise to the amount of disagreement between various analysts (since a wide range of expectations has different implications for what is “unexpected”). This is done by dividing the percentage earnings surprise by the standard deviation of analyst earnings forecasts.

Thus, if the earnings surprise is £0.05 and the standard deviation of analyst estimates was £0.03, the scaled earnings surprise is £0.05/£0.03 = 1.67.

# Brokers No. of Brokers Covering Company

This shows the number of analysts that are actively covering the company, i.e. they are currently providing a forecast for the next year and contributing to the next year consensus estimate.

You can read more about the Consensus Estimate here.

# Estimates No. of Broker Estimates

This measures the number of independent analyst estimates that are reflected in the Consensus Estimate.

You can read more about the Consensus Estimate here.

Broker Consensus Broker Consensus (1=buy, 5=sell)

Consensus Recommendation of brokers on a 1-5 scale. Rather counter intuitively perhaps 1 is scored as a Strong Buy, and 5 as a Strong sell. 3 is a hold.

A consensus recommendation for an individual stock compiles ratings from a number of analysts who track that stock. The recommendation is expressed as a median of the separate recommendations.

% Price Target Chg 1m 1m Price Target Change %

This is the change in the broker price target over the last month expressed as a percentage.

% Price Target Chg 3m 3m Price Target Change %

This is the change in the broker price target over the last 3 months expressed as a percentage.

% Price Target Discount from Broker Price Target (%)

The current discount or premium to the average/consensus broker forecast price (as compiled by Thomson Reuters). Price Targets with a non-12M horizon are excluded by Reuters from the consensus price target calculations.

# Buy Recs No. of Brokers Buy Recommendations

This is the number of Buy Recommendations by analysts covering the stocks. A Buy Recommendation generally indicates that the analyst expect that the stock should outperform other comparable stocks.

# Outperform Recs No. of Broker Outperform Recommendations

This is the number of Outperform Recommendations amongst analysts who cover the stocks. An Outperform Recommendation means that a stock is expected to do slightly better than the market return. This is also known as "moderate buy", or "accumulate".

# Hold Recs No. of Broker Hold Recommendations

This is the number of Hold Recommendations. A "Hold" is an analyst's opinion that can be interpreted as meaning that a stock should be kept by individuals who already own it, but should not be purchased by those who don't already. A hold recommendation is generally better than a [[Sell Recommendation]] but worse than a [[Buy Recommendation]]. It usually means that the analyst believes the stock will remain fairly stable and neither outperform or underperform the Market. Holds are also referred to as "Neutral" or "Market Perform" recommendations.

# Underperform Recs No. of Broker Underperform Recommendations

This is the number of Underperform Recommendations. This is an analyst recommendation meaning that the stock is expected to do slightly worse than the market. It is also known as [[Moderate Sell]], or [[Weak Hold]].

# Sell Recs No. of Broker Sell Recommendations

An analyst recommendation to sell a stock, generally indicating that the stock should underperform other comparable stocks.

# Downgrades (1w) No. of EPS Downgrades FY2 (Last Week)

This shows the total count of Earnings Estimate Downgrades from brokers/analysts in the last week. It should be contrasted with EPS Upgrades.

# Downgrades (1m) No. of EPS Downgrades FY2 (Last Month)

This shows the total count of Earnings Estimate Downgrades from brokers/analysts in the last month. It should be contrasted to [[EPS Upgrades]].

# 1w Upgrades No. of EPS Upgrades FY2 (Last Week)

This shows the total count of Earnings Estimate Upgrades from brokers/analysts in the last month. It should be contrasted to EPS Downgrades.

# 1m Upgrades No. of EPS Upgrades FY2 (Last Month)

This shows the total count of Earnings Estimate Upgrades (for FY2) by brokers/analysts in the last month. It should be contrasted with EPS Downgrades.

% 1m EPS Upgrade FY1 EPS Forecast Upgrade % (Year 1) within last month

This shows the percentage EPS upgrade of consensus broker forecasts for FY1 over the past month.

FY1 means the current forecast year, so if we are in March, it would usually be the year ended next December. It does however depends when the company's year-end is (whereas this is not the case with a rolling ratio).

% 1m EPS Upgrade FY2 EPS Forecast Upgrade % (Year 2) within last month

This shows the percentage EPS upgrade of consensus broker forecasts for FY2 over the past month.

FY2 means the next forecast year after this one. If we are in March, it would usually be the year ended the December after next December. It does however depends when the company's year-end is, i.e. they do not always end in December (this is not the case with a rolling ratio which is normalised for different year-ends).

% 3m EPS Upgrade FY1 EPS Forecast Upgrade % (Year 1) within last 3 months

This shows the percentage EPS upgrade of consensus broker forecasts for FY1 over the past three months.

FY1 means the current forecast year, so if we are in March, it would usually be the year ended next December. It does however depends when the company's year-end is (whereas this is not the case with a rolling ratio).

% 3m EPS Upgrade FY2 EPS Forecast Upgrade % (Year 2) within last 3 months

This shows the percentage EPS upgrade of consensus broker forecasts for FY2 over the past three months.

FY2 means the next forecast year after this one. If we are in March, it would usually be the year ended the December after next December. It does however depends when the company's year-end is, i.e. they do not always end in December (this is not the case with a rolling ratio which is normalised for different year-ends).

EPS Forecast 1y EPS Forecast FY1

This is the first year fiscal forecast of earnings per share for the company.

EPS Forecast 2y EPS Forecast FY2

This is the second year fiscal forecast of earnings per share for the company.

EPS Gwth % Forecast 2y EPS (Normalised) % Growth, One Year Ahead

The earnings per share ratio divides the net annual earnings of a company into the number of shares. Earnings-per-share growth gives a good picture of the rate at which a company has grown its profitability. One of the important differences vs. net-income growth rates is that EPS growth reflects the dilution that occurs from new stock issuance, the exercise of employee stock options, warrants, convertible securities, and share repurchases. Stocks with higher earnings-per-share growth rates are generally more desirable than those with slower earnings-per-share growth rates.

EPS Surprise % Last Yr Earnings per share Surprise %, Last Year

If a company releases a number higher or lower than the consensus (a combination of all the released estimates), this is known respectively as a positive or negative surprise.

EPS Surprise %, Last Interim EPS Surprise %, Last Interim

If a company releases a number higher or lower than the consensus (a combination of all the released estimates), this is known respectively as a positive or negative surprise.

EPS Upgrade Streak No. of quarters consecutive EPS upgrades

This shows how many consecutive quarters over the last 15 months (5 quarters) have seen estimate upgrades for the company.

One thing to note is that this is likely to favour companies that reports quarterly although the number of tests is the same for interim reporters, i.e. 5 tests every 3 months.

Long Term Gwth Forecast % Average Broker Long Term Growth Forecast

This is the consensus long-term growth rate amongst analysts which cover the company. It is a data point collated by Thomson Reuters to provide the annualised compound growth rate over the next 3 to 7 year period.

Long-term growth is an estimate of the compound average rate of growth an analyst expects over and is expressed as a percentage increase per year. It is usually calculated on Earnings per Share, but sometimes or Funds from Operations per Share, whichever is considered as primary for a particular company.

Our data providers (Reuters) explain that 'as most analysts do not provide the basis of the calculation of their growth rates, the estimates collected are assumed to include a combination of past and future years with at least one future period included, and are calculated on a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) basis.'

Sales Surprise %, Last Interim Sales Surprise %, Last Interim

If a company releases a number higher or lower than the consensus (a combination of all the released estimates), this is known respectively as a positive or negative surprise.

Sales Surprise %, Last Yr Sales Surprise %, Last Year

If a company releases a number higher or lower than the consensus (a combination of all the released estimates), this is known respectively as a positive or negative surprise.


Per Share Items

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
10y EPS Increases No. of years of EPS Increases in last decade

This is the number of times that the Earnings per Shares (EPS) have increased over the last ten financial years.

Capex PS Capital Expenditure Per Share

This measures the amount of capital expenditure which the company incurs in order to maintain its operating assets. It is calculated as the Capital Expenditure from the Statement of CashFlows divided by the Average Shares Outstanding for the same period.

Cash PS Cash and Short Term investment Per Share

Cash per share is calculated by taking all the cash and short term investments of the company and dividing that number by the total shares outstanding. If you can find a stock trading below its cash per share, you may have a bargain, particularly if the stock has no debt or little debt. However, be careful of the ratios you see for the financial companies - the amount of cash for these companies may be much higher than in other sectors, due to the accounting of customer deposits.

EPS Normalised Earnings per Share

Diluted EPS figure indicates the earnings per-share a business would have generated if all stock options and other sources of dilution that were currently exercisable are taken into account. This version has been normalised to exclude exceptional income and charges, better reflecting underlying results

EPS 5y ago Normalised Earnings per share, 5 Years ago

This is Diluted Normalized EPS - 5 years ago, Reporting Currency

EPS 6y Avg Normalised Earnings per share, 6 Year Average

Diluted EPS figure indicates the earnings per-share a business would have generated if all stock options and other sources of dilution that were currently exercisable are taken into account. This version has been normalised to exclude exceptional income and charges, better reflecting underlying results

EPS Streak No. of years consecutive positive earnings per share

For how many out of the last 5 consecutive years has the company reported profits? Profit Streak measures the number of consecutive years within the last five years that the company has reported profits.

FCF PS Free Cash Flow Per Share

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely "paper" expenses.

Net Cash PS Net Cash Per Share

Cash per share is calculated by taking all the cash and short term investments of the company and dividing that number by the total shares outstanding. If you can find a stock trading below its cash per share, you may have a bargain, particularly if the stock has no debt or little debt. However, be careful of the ratios you see for the financial companies - the amount of cash for these companies may be much higher than in other sectors, due to the accounting of customer deposits.

OCF PS Operating Cash Flow Per Share

Operating cash flow - or cash flow from operating activities - refers to the amount of cash a company generates from the revenues it brings in, excluding costs associated with long-term capital investment. It is similar to operating profit but excluding non-cash items and accruals. Operating cash differs from free cash flow by excluding the effect of investment activities but it does include payments for taxes or interest as well as changes in working capital (unlike [[EBITDA]]. It does not take into account any cash raised by borrowing or issuing shares (cash flow from financing). In the long-run, a business must be able to make money from its operations.

OCF PS £ Operating Cashflow Per Share (GBP)

Operating cash flow - or cash flow from operating activities - refers to the amount of cash a company generates from the revenues it brings in, excluding costs associated with long-term capital investment. It is similar to operating profit but excluding non-cash items and accruals.

Sales PS Sales Per Share

Sales per Share is a ratio of a company's annual revenue to its average number of shares outstanding for a given year. A higher ratio is seen as indicating an active company that has successfully used its resources to produce sales.


Income Statement

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Basic EPS Incl. Extraords Basic EPS Incl. Extraordinaries, Trailing 12m
EBITDA Earnings Before Interest, Tax, Depreciation & Amortisation

EBITDA comprises earnings before interest, tax and depreciation. EBITDA differs from the operating cash flow in a cash flow statement primarily by excluding payments for taxes or interest as well as changes in working capital. EBITDA also differs from free cash flow because it excludes cash requirements for replacing capital assets (capex).

EBITDA Mgn % EBITDA Margin %

A method used in determining how profitable a company or business is with regard to operations. It is calculated as [[EBITDA]] (Earnings before interest, tax and depreciation) divided by [[Revenue]].

EBITDA Mgn 5y Avg EBITDA Margin %, 5 Year Average

Earnings before interest, tax and depreciation divided by Total Revenue.

EPS PTTM Diluted EPS (Normalised), Prior Trailing 12m

Diluted EPS figure indicates the earnings per-share a business would have generated if all stock options and other sources of dilution that were currently exercisable are taken into account. This version has been normalised to exclude exceptional income and charges, better reflecting underlying results

Net Profit Net Profit, Trailing 12m

Net income is the residual income of a firm after adding total revenue and gains and subtracting all expenses and losses for the reporting period.

Net Profit £m Net Profit (£m)

Net Profit in the profit reported net of all taxes, interest and expenses. Often referred to as the 'bottom line' and used to calculate per share earnings.

Net Profit before Extraords Net Profit before Extraordinaries

Net income is the residual income of a firm after adding total revenue and gains and subtracting all expenses and losses for the reporting period.

Op Profit Operating Profit

Operating Profit - or Operating Income - is a measure of a company's earning power from ongoing operations, calculated as the difference between operating revenues and operating expenses. When a firm has zero non-operating income, then operating income is equal to EBIT (earnings before deduction of interest payments and income taxes).

Op Profit 1y ago Operating Profit - 1 yr ago

This is Operating Income - 1 year ago, Reporting Currency

Op Profit 2y ago Operating Profit - 2 yrs ago

This is Operating Income - 2 years ago, Reporting Currency

Op Profit 3y ago Operating Profit - 3 yrs ago

This is Operating Income - 3 years ago, Reporting Currency

Op Profit 4y ago Operating Profit - 4 yrs ago

This is Operating Income - 4 years ago, Reporting Currency

Op Profit 5y ago Operating Profit - 5 yrs ago

This is Operating Income - 5 years ago, Reporting Currency

Retained Earnings PS Retained Earnings Per Share

Retained earnings per share refers to the portion of net income which is retained by the company rather than distributed to its owners as dividends. This is calculated by dividing [[Retained Earnings]] by the total number of [[Shares Outstanding]].

Sales (Local) Total Sales (Local Currency)

Sales (also known as revenue ) tell you the dollar amount of goods and services a company sells. This is important because it indicates the amount of money being brought in as a result of the customers' desire for whatever the company is selling.

Sales (Local) PTTM Total Sales, Prior Trailing 12m

Sales (also known as revenue ) tell you the dollar amount of goods and services a company sells. This is important because it indicates the amount of money being brought in as a result of the customers' desire for whatever the company is selling.

Sales (Local), Last Yr Total Sales (Local Currency), Last Year

This is the total income that a company receives from its normal business activities, usually from the sale of goods and services to customers.
NOTE: In the case of Banks, revenue is defined as the sum of Net Interest Income and Non-Interest Income.


Balance Sheet Statement

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Cash & ST Inv Cash & Short Term Investments

This is Cash and Short Term Investments at the last reported results. Cash and Equivalents represents short-term, highly liquid investments that are both readily convertible to known amounts of cash and so close to their maturity that they present insignificant risk of changes in interest rates. Only investments with original maturities of three months or less qualify under these definitions.

Short-Term Investments consists of any investments in debt and equity securities with maturity of one year or less. The ?short-term? nature depends on actual maturity of one year from the balance sheet date rather than on the original maturity of a specific investment. Short-Term Investments includes: i) Short-term loans, ii) Certificates of deposits (with maturity of 3 to 12 months), iii) Short-term paper (with maturity of 3 to 12 months), iv) Financial Derivatives and v) Trading account securities in investment services and miscellaneous financial services

NCAV Net Current Asset Value

NCAV equals the companies current assets minus its total liabilities. This gives an additional margin of safety versus book value - on this valuation measure, one is essentially paying nothing for all the fixed assets (buildings, machinery, etc0, or any goodwill items that may exist.

Net Debt Net Debt

Net Debt is the sum of all short term debt, and notes payables, Long Term debt and preferred equity minus the total cash and equivalents and short term investments for the most recent reporting period.

Net Debt / Assets Net Debt to Assets

Net Debt to Assets is a measure of the extent to which a company's assets are financed by debt. It is, therefore, a measure of its financial risk - the higher the ratio, the greater risk will be associated with the firm's operation. In addition, high debt to assets ratio may indicate low borrowing capacity of a firm, which in turn will lower the firm's financial flexibility. This version includes intangibles and goodwill.

Pension Deficit Pension Deficit

This shows the size of a Pension Deficit or Surplus. A positive figure indicates a Deficit (Liabilities are larger than Assets) and a negative figure indicates a Surplus. The figure is as of the most recent set of annual accounts.

Working Capital Working Capital

Working capital is calculated as current assets minus current liabilities. It is a measure of the operating liquidity available to a business. However, companies that do business on a cash basis (such as a grocery store) need very little working capital (it may even be negative such that the business is partly funded by its suppliers).


Cashflow Statement

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
FCF Free Cash Flow

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely \paper only\"\"" expenses\""\""\"""""

FCF 1y Ago Free Cash Flow, 1 Year Ago

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely \paper only\"\"" expenses\""\""\"""""

FCF 2y Ago Free Cash Flow, 2 Years Ago

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely \paper only\"\"" expenses\""\""\"""""

FCF 3y Ago Free Cash Flow, 3 Years Ago

Free Cash Flow is calculated from the Statement of Cash Flows as Cash From Operations minus Capital Expenditures. Unlike earnings, it omits purely \paper only\"\"" expenses\""\""\"""""

OCF Operating Cashflow

Operating cash flow - or cash flow from operating activities - refers to the amount of cash a company generates from the revenues it brings in, excluding costs associated with long-term capital investment. It is similar to operating profit but excluding non-cash items and accruals. Operating cash differs from free cash flow by excluding the effect of investment activities but it does include payments for taxes or interest as well as changes in working capital (unlike [[EBITDA]]. It does not take into account any cash raised by borrowing or issuing shares (cash flow from financing). In the long-run, a business must be able to make money from its operations.

OCF / EPS Operating Cash Flow to EPS

This ratio compares operating cash flow per share (i.e. operating cash flow divided by the number of shares used to calculate EPS) with reported EPS.

It is a measure of cash conversion, i.e. the proportion of profits that are converted to cash flow.


Portfolio Holdings

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Cost {ccy} Total Cost

This shows the total cost of a portfolio position in the designated portfolio currency {ccy}.

Cost per share {ccy} Cost per share

This shows the average cost per share of a portfolio position in the designated portfolio currency (£, $ , EUR etc). The average cost is based on a FIFO (first in first out) matching process. You can read up on this further in this article.

Gain {ccy} Unrealised Gain

This shows the total unrealised gain in a portfolio position expressed as in the designated portfolio currency {ccy}.

Gain % Unrealised Gain %

This shows the total unrealised gain in a portfolio position expressed as a percentage.

Income {ccy} Income Trailing 12 months

This shows the estimated dividend income for a portfolio position expressed in the chosen portfolio currency. It is based on the trailing 12 month dividend yield and is indicative only.

Income Forecast {ccy} Income (Rolling 1 year forecast)

This shows the estimated dividend income for a portfolio position expressed in the chosen portfolio currency. It is based on the Rolling 1 year forecast dividend yield and is indicative only.

Realised Gain {ccy} Realised Gain

This is the total of realised gains in a portfolio position expressed in the chosen portfolio currency {ccy}.

Realised Gain % Realised Gain %

This is the total of realised gains in a portfolio position expressed as a percentage.

Shrs Shares Held

This is the total aggregate shares held in a portfolio position after sells have been netted off against buys.

Today {ccy} Today's Gain

This is the indicative gain on a portfolio position since the open price that morning.

Total Gain {ccy} Total Gain

This is the total gain on a portfolio position adding unrealised gains on current holdings and realised gains from sales expressed in the chosen portfolio currency.

Total Gain % Total Gain %

This is the total gain on a portfolio position adding unrealised gains on current holdings and realised gains from sales expressed as a percentage of cost.

Value {ccy} Position Value

This is the current market value of the portfolio position. It uses the net shares held.


Dates

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Annual Result Date Last Annual Result Date

This is the date of the latest available annual result from the company in question. It can be used as a table column in editable tables at Stockopedia.

Interim Result Date Last Interim Result Date

This is the date of the latest available interim or quarterly result from the company in question. It can be used as a table column in editable tables at Stockopedia.


Miscellaneous

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
--- separator --- Column Separator

This is an option available in your table views at Stockopedia. It prints a vertical separator line between columns for increased legibility.

# Screens (Bargain) No. of Bargain Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Bargain' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

# Screens (Growth) No. of Growth Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Growth' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

# Screens (Income) No. of Income Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Income' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

# Screens (Long) No. of Screens Qualified for (excluding shorts)

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens that a given stock qualifies for. It doesn't include Short Screens.

# Screens (Momentum) No. of Momentum Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Momentum' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

# Screens (Quality) No. of Quality Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Quality' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

# Screens (Short) No. of Short Selling Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Short' Category that a given stock qualifies for. It doesn't include Long Screens.

# Screens (Value) No. of Value Screens Qualified for

This is the number of Stockopedia Screens in the 'Value' Category that a given stock currently qualifies for.

ISA Eligible ISA Eligiblity of Share

This field shows as a tick or cross whether the share is eligible for the UK tax free 'Individual Savings Account' wrapper - known as an ISA in the UK.


Insider Deals

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
# Insiders Number of Insiders

This is the total number of company insiders. This includes board, management and 10%+ owners who are party to insider information.

Insider % % Insider Ownership

This is the percentage of shares outstanding held by company insiders. This includes board, management and 10%+ owners who are party to insider information.

Net Buyer Ratio Net Buyer Ratio

The percentage of all insiders that have been net buyers of the company’s stock over each period.

Insider Rank Stockopedia Insider Rank™

The Stockopedia Insider Rank is a proprietary seven-factor model incorporating insider and senior director (board member) buying, cluster buying factors, net transaction values, net percentage position changes, relative percentage position changes, and short-term insider buying trends. Each factor is time-weighted to give extra weight to recent transactions.


Institutional Deals

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
# Inst Shs Bought Number of Institutional Shares Bought

The number of institutional shares bought in the latest period.

# Inst Shs Own No of Insitutional Shares Owned

The number of shares owned by institutional investors.

# Inst Shs Sold Number of Institutional Shares Sold

Number of shares sold by institutions in the current period.

# Institutions Number of Institutional Owners

This shows the number of 'institutions' that own the company's shares according to publicly available filings.

% Inst Shs Bought Percent of Institutional Shares Bought

The percentage of shares outstanding sold by institutions in the current period.

% Inst Shs Own Percentage of Shares owned by Institutions

This shows the percentage of shares owned by institutional investors as a percentage of current shares outstanding.

% Inst Shs Sold Percent of Institutional Shares Sold
Best Ideas Rank Institutional Best Ideas Rank

Short Interest

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
% Short Chg Short Interest % Change, 1 month

This is the change over the last month in the percentage of shares that funds and large investors are currently 'short' in the stock.

% Short Interest Short Interest

This is the percentage of shares that funds and large investors are currently 'short' in the stock.

% Short Interest (float) Short Interest as % of Float

This is the percentage of shares that funds and large investors are currently 'short' in the stock, as compared with the 'float', i.e. the portion of its shares that can be publicly traded.

Days to Cover Short Interest Ratio (Days to Cover)

This is a ratio created by dividing the prevailing short interest in a stock by the average daily volume of shares traded.

Short Risk Short Risk

This is a proprietary Stockopedia Short Rank where 100 is most risky and 0 is least risky. Only stocks being shorted are ranked on this metric, which is generally about 15 % of the market.

Short Squeeze Risk Short Squeeze Risk

This is a proprietary Stockopedia Short Squeeze Risk indicator where 100 is most risky and 0 is least risky. Only stocks being shorted are ranked on this metric, which is generally about 15 % of the market.


Ownership

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
SmartMoney Rank™ Stockopedia SmartMoneyRank™

The Stockopedia Smart Money Rank is a blend of Institutional, Insider, Analyst Momentum and Short Selling metrics.


Chart Types

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Candlestick Chart Candlestick Chart

Candlestick charts represent a day's share price using a thick bar with vertical tails. The tails represent the high and low price on the day, while the bar spans the open and close prices on the day. A red bar indicates a close price lower than the open, while a green bar indicates a close price higher than the open.

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Line Chart Line Chart

A line chart plots the close price of each trading day and connects the datapoints with a line.

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OHLC Chart OHLC Chart

OHLC stands for the open, high, low and close prices of a share's price on a trading day.

Normally on a chart this is visually represented by a vertical line between the low price and the high price with a left and right horizontal ledge showing the open price (left) and close price (right).

Normally a green bar indicates a close price above an open price and a red bar indicates a close lower than the open

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Overlays

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Bollinger Band Bollinger Band

Bollinger Bands are a volatility indicator that are used to measure the current price of a security relative to previous trading periods.

In calculating a Bollinger Band the 'period' (number of days, weeks, months) must be defined in order to calculate a moving average from which is defined

  • an upper band at a multipe of standard deviations above the MA
  • a lower band at the same multiple of standard deviations below the MA.
Donchian Channels Donchian Channels

The Donchian channel is created by taking the highest high and lowest low of the previous N trading periods for a security. A channel is created between the high and low prices which is often filled with a colour on stock trading charts as illustrated below.

Stockopedia offers a 20 period and 55 period Donchian Channels as default in the chart package.

Most traders use the Donchian channel as an indicator to judge breakouts. If a stock moves above or below the previous Donchian Channel high/low it indicates a purchase or sale point.

Donchian Channel Chart

Parabolic SAR Parabolic Stop and Reverse

Parabolic Stop and Reverse or Parabolic SAR was originated by the famous technician J Welles Wilder. The idea was to find changes in share price trends. Many investors use Parabolic SARs to set trailing stop losses on stocks.

Parabolic SAR Charts

Stockopedia uses the following defaults in the chart package for Parabolic SAR: Initial Acceleration 0.02, Incremental Acceleration 0.02, Maximum Acceleration 0.2

Price Envelope Price Envelope

A price envelope is defined as a channel around a moving average - a ratio of 0.2 creates an envelope 20% above and below a moving average. It can be visually displayed as a band around a moving average as below.

Price Envelope

The optimum percentage envelope is best based on the volatility of the security with more volatile stocks requiring broader envelopes.


Moving Averages

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
Exponential Moving Average Exponential Moving Average

An exponential moving average is similar to a [[Simple Moving Average]] but the average is calculated weighting the previous day's share prices according to an exponential function. For a complete definition please refer to wikipedia

Simple Moving Average Simple Moving Average

A simple moving average is basic arithmetic mean (average) price over the previous N periods in a share price chart. The period used can be minutes, days, weeks etc. Generally the moving average is plotted as a line on a chart alongside the share price in order to show the general/overall trend in the price. It tends to appear much smoother than a daily price chart thus highlighting trends more deftly.

Triangular Moving Average Triangular Moving Average

This is a version of the [[Simple Moving Average]] but it is double averaged.:

SMA = (P1 + P2 + P3 + P4 + ... + Pn) / n
TMA = (SMA1 + SMA2 + SMA3 + SMA4 + ... SMAn) / n
Weighted Moving Average Weighted Moving Average

The Weighted Moving Average (WMA) is a weighted version of the Simple Moving Average (SMA) giving greater weight to more recent trading.

The definition is:

WMA=(1P1+2P2+3P3....+nPn) / ((n*(n+1))/2)

While the SMA has n/2 time lag the WMA has only n/3 time lag.


Technical Indicators

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
% Price Oscillator (PPO) % Price Oscillator (PPO)

This is a momentum indicator based on the difference between two moving averages expressed as a percentage. The PPO is found by subtracting the longer moving average (26 day EMA) from the shorter moving average (12 day EMA) and then dividing the difference by the longer moving average.

It is similar to the MACD. As with its cousin, MACD, the Percentage Price Oscillator is shown with a signal line (the 9 day EMA), a histogram and a centerline. While MACD measures the absolute difference between two moving averages, PPO makes this a relative value by dividing difference by the slower moving average (26-day EMA).

% Volume Oscillator (PVO) % Volume Oscillator (PVO)

The Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO) is a momentum oscillator for volume. PVO measures the difference between two volume-based moving averages (26 day vs. 12 day) as a percentage of the larger moving average. As with MACD and the Percentage Price Oscillator (PPO), it is shown with a signal line (9 day), a histogram and a centerline.

Percentage Volume Oscillator (PVO): ((12-day EMA of Volume - 26-day EMA of Volume)/26-day EMA of Volume) x 100. The PVO has a maximum of 100, but no minimum value.

Accumulation/Distribution Accumulation/Distribution
Aroon Oscillator Aroon Oscillator

A trend-following indicator used to gauge the strength of a current trend and the likelihood that it will continue. The Aroon indicator system consists of three lines: Aroon Up, Aroon Down, and the Aroon Oscillator which reflects the difference between the two. The Aroon Oscillator oscillates between -100 and 100 with zero as the centre crossover line - signals an upward trend when it rises above zero and a downward trend when it falls below zero.

Aroon Up/Down Aroon Up/Down

A trend-following indicator used to gauge the strength of a current trend and the likelihood that it will continue. The Aroon indicator system consists of three lines: Aroon Up, Aroon Down, and the Aroon Oscillator which reflects the difference between the two. The Aroon Up and Aroon Down indicators signal the start of a new trend. Chande recommends the following signals:

  • Aroon Up above 70 indicates a strong up-trend.
  • Aroon Down above 70 indicates a strong down-trend.
  • Aroon Up below 50 warns that the up-trend is weakening.
  • Aroon Down below 50 signals that the down-trend is weakening.
Average Directional Index (ADX) Average Directional Index (ADX)

The average directional movement index (ADX) was developed in 1978 by J. Welles Wilder as an indicator of trend strength. The ADX ranges between 0 to 100 : the higher the oscillator, the stronger the trend. Generally, ADX readings below 20 are said to indicate trend weakness, and readings above 40 indicate trend strength. An extremely strong trend is indicated by readings above 50.

Average True Range (ATR) Average True Range (ATR)

Average true range (ATR) is a technical analysis volatility indicator originally developed by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. for commodities. The indicator does not provide an indication of price trend, simply the degree of price volatility. The average true range is an N-day exponential moving average of the true range values. Wilder recommended a 14-period smoothing, which is what we use.

The true range is the largest of the:

  • Most recent period's high minus the most recent period's low
  • Absolute value of the most recent period's high minus the previous close
  • Absolute value of the most recent period's low minus the previous close
Bollinger Band Width Bollinger Band Width

Indicator that displays the width of Bollinger Bands.

Chaikin Money Flow Chaikin Money Flow

Was developed by Marc Chaikin. An oscillator that helps signal if a stock is undergoing accumulation or distribution. It is calculated from the daily readings of the Accumulation Distribution Line. The CMF is unlike a momentum oscillator in that it is not influenced by the daily price change. Instead

Chaikin Oscillator Chaikin Oscillator

Indicator that is calculated by subtracting a 10 period exponential moving average from a 3 period moving average of the Accumulation Distribution Line.

Chaikin Volatility Chaikin Volatility

Chaikin Volatility is an indicator measuring volatility using the percent change in a moving average of the high versus low price over a given time. It quantifies the volatility value based on a widening of the maximum and minimum rates over a specified number of periods.

Our measure uses a 10 day period to smooth the range and 10 day period to compute the rate of change of the smoothed range.

Close Location Value Close Location Value
Commodity Channel Index (CCI) Commodity Channel Index (CCI)
Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO) Detrended Price Oscillator (DPO)

The detrended price oscillator (DPO) is an indicator in technical analysis that attempts to eliminate the long-term trends in prices by using a displaced moving average so it does not react to the most current price action. This allows the indicator to show intermediate overbought and oversold levels effectively.

The formula for DPO = Close - Simple moving average [from (n / 2 + 1) days ago

Donchian Channel Width Donchian Channel Width

The width of Donchian Channels is a useful indicator for seeing the volatility of a market price. If a price is stable the Donchian channel will be relatively narrow. If the price fluctuates a lot the Donchian channel will be wider.

Ease of Movement Ease of Movement

Developed by Richard Arms, Ease of Movement (EMV) is a volume-based oscillator that fluctuates above and below the zero line. As its name implies, it is designed to measure the "ease" of price movement. It highlights the relationship between volume and price changes and is particularly useful for assessing the strength of a trend.

The Ease of Movement default is set at 10 days smoothing by an exponential moving average.

Fast Stochastic Fast Stochastic

The Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that measures where the close is in relation to the recent trading range. The Stochastic Oscillator is made up of two lines that oscillate between a vertical scale of 0 to 100. The %K is the main line and it is drawn as a solid line. The second is the %D line and is a moving average of %K. The %D line is drawn as a dotted line. The Fast Stochastic is the average of the last three %K and a Slow Stochastic is a three day average of the Fast Stochastic.

MACD(Moving Average Convergence/Divergence) MACD (Moving Average Convergence/Divergence)

The MACD is the difference between a 26-day and 12-day exponential moving average of closing prices. A 9-day EMA, called the "signal" line is plotted on top of the MACD to show buy/sell opportunities. The basic MACD trading rule is to sell when the "slow line" of the MACD falls below the faster 9-Day EMA line (known as a "signal line crossover") and similarly, a buy signal occurs when the MACD rises above its signal line.

Mass Index Mass Index

Invented by Donald Dorsey, the Mass Index indicator is used to identify trend turns. The Mass Index attempts to predict reversals by comparing the trading range (High minus Low) for each period. Reversals are signalled by a bulge in the index line. This formula uses intraday range values: not the "true range," which adjusts for full and partial gaps.

Momentum Momentum

An oscillator that measures the rate of price change (as opposed to the actual levels themselves). It is calculated by taking price differences for a fixed time interval. This positive or negative value is plotted around a zero line.

Momentum is used to detect trend weakness and likely reversal points. It is often underrated because of its simplicity. High Momentum readings (positive or negative) occur when a trend is at its strongest.

Money Flow Index Money Flow Index

The Money Flow Index (MFI) is an oscillator that uses both price and volume to measure buying and selling pressure. Money flow is defined as the typical daily price times today's volume, a kind of approximation to the dollar value of a day's trading. MFI is the percentage of the total money flow that is up.

The money flow index is calculated by using the following formula:

  • Typical Price = (High + Low + Close) / 3
  • Money Flow = Typical price * Volume
  • Money Ratio = Positive Money Flow/Negative Money Flow
  • Money Flow Index = 100 - (100/ (1 + Money Ratio))
Negative Volume Index Negative Volume Index

The two indicators are based on the assumption that the smart money dominates trading on quiet days and that the uninformed crowd dominates trading on active days.

On Balance Volume (OBV) On Balance Volume (OBV)

A technical indicator calculated by keeping a running total of the volume. When the price closes higher or lower than the previous day the volume is added or subtracted respectively.

Performance Indicator Performance Indicator

The Performance indicator displays the percentage that the security has increased since the first period displayed. It is then displayed as a positive or negative value. For example, if the Performance indicator is 10, it means that the security's price has increased 10% while a value of -10% means that the security's price has fallen by 10% since the first period displayed.

Positive Volume Index (PVI) Positive Volume Index (PVI)
Price Volume Trend (PVT) Price Volume Trend (PVT)
Rate of Change (ROC) Rate of Change (ROC)

Rate of Change (ROC) displays the value of the current price relative to the price n periods ago. The ROC measures changes in prices during a certain time and displays them in the form of an oscillator showing the cyclical movements. The centre line is at 100 and a value above this means that the price was higher.

RSI RSI

Developed J. Welles Wilder, RSI is a technical momentum indicator that compares the magnitude of recent gains to recent losses in an attempt to determine overbought and oversold conditions of an asset. Specifically: RSI = 100 - 100/(1 + RS) where RS = Average of x days' up closes / Average of x days' down closes. An asset is deemed to be oversold once the RSI falls below the 30 level, meaning that it may be getting undervalued and is a good candidate for a uptick. RSI uses all the price changes that occur over a given period in order to derive the average price change.

Slow Stochastic Slow Stochastic

The Stochastic Oscillator is a momentum indicator that measures where the close is in relation to the recent trading range. The Stochastic Oscillator is made up of two lines that oscillate between a vertical scale of 0 to 100. The %K is the main line and it is drawn as a solid line. The second is the %D line and is a moving average of %K. The %D line is drawn as a dotted line. The Fast Stochastic is the average of the last three %K and a Slow Stochastic is a three day average of the Fast Stochastic.

StochRSI StochRSI
TRIX TRIX

Trix (or TRIX) is a technical analysis oscillator developed in the 1980s by Jack Hutson, editor of Technical Analysis of Stocks and Commodities magazine. It shows the slope (i.e. derivative) of a triple-smoothed exponential moving average.

Ultimate Oscillator Ultimate Oscillator

The oscillator is a technical analysis oscillator developed by Larry Williams based on a notion of buying or selling "pressure" represented by where a day's closing price falls within the day's true range. An oscillator that attempts to combine information for several different time periods into one number. Three different time periods are used: 7, 14 & 28 days.

Williams had specific criteria for a buy or sell signal. A buy signal occurs when:

  • Bullish divergence between price and the oscillator is observed, meaning prices make new lows but the oscillator doesn't
  • During the divergence the oscillator has fallen below 30.
  • The oscillator then rises above its high during the divergence, i.e. the high in between the two lows. The buy trigger is the rise through that high.
Williams %R Williams %R

Williams %R, or just %R, is a technical analysis oscillator showing the current closing price in relation to the high and low of the past N days. It was developed by a publisher and promoter of trading materials, Larry Williams. Its purpose is to tell whether a stock or commodity market is trading near the high or the low, or somewhere in between, of its recent trading range.

Williams considered values below -80 as oversold and above -20 as overbought. But they were not to be traded directly, instead his rule to buy an oversold was

  • %R reaches -100%.
  • Five trading days pass since -100% was last reached
  • %R rises above -95% or -85%.

Chart Signals

Short Name Long Name Definition Screenable Ranks
14 Day RSI Overbought 14 Day RSI Overbought

Developed J. Welles Wilder, RSI is a technical momentum indicator that compares the magnitude of recent gains to recent losses in an attempt to determine overbought and oversold conditions of an asset. Specifically: RSI = 100 - 100/(1 + RS) where RS = Average of x days' up closes / Average of x days' down closes.

An asset is deemed to be overbought once the RSI exceeds the 70 level, meaning that it may be getting overvalued and is a good candidate for a pullback.

14 Day RSI Oversold 14 Day RSI Oversold

Developed J. Welles Wilder, RSI is a technical momentum indicator that compares the magnitude of recent gains to recent losses in an attempt to determine overbought and oversold conditions of an asset. Specifically: RSI = 100 - 100/(1 + RS) where RS = Average of x days' up closes / Average of x days' down closes.

An asset is deemed to be oversold once the RSI falls below the 30 level, meaning that it may be getting undervalued and is a good candidate for a uptick.

Death Cross Death Cross

On a stock chart, the Death cross occurs when the 50-day MA falls below the 200-day MA. As the name implies, a Death Cross is associated with sharp downward price movement and can be used as a sell signal in the belief that a significant downtrend will follow.

The reverse of this event is known as a Golden Cross where the 50-day MA rises above the 200-day MA, a bullish signal.

Gap Down Gap Down

A Gap Down is when a stock opens at a lower level than the previous day's low. For example, if the previous day's high was 500, and the stock opened at 495, there would have been a 5 point gap down. This is considered a bearish signal.

This is also known as a Full Gap Down (as opposed to a Partial Gap Down which is when the stock just opens below the previous day's close).

Gap Up Gap Up

A Gap Up is when a stock opens at a higher level than the previous day's high. For example, if the previous day's high was 500, and the stock opened at 505, there would have been a 5 point gap up. This is considered a bullish signal.

This is also known as a Full Gap Up (as opposed to a Partial Gap Up which is when the stock just opens above the previous day's close).

Golden Cross Golden Cross

On a stock chart, the golden cross occurs when the 50-day MA rises sharply and crosses over the 200-day MA. Usually, a golden cross is associated with sharp upward price movement and can be used as a buy signal in the belief that a significant uptrend will follow.

The reverse of this event is known as a Death Cross where the 50-day MA falls below the 200-day MA, a bearish signal.

MACD Signal Line Crossover MACD Signal Line Crossover Bearish

The MACD is the difference between a 26-day and 12-day exponential moving average of closing prices. A 9-day EMA, called the "signal" line is plotted on top of the MACD to show buy/sell opportunities.

The basic MACD trading rule is to sell when the "slow line" of the MACD falls below the faster 9-Day EMA line (known as a "signal line crossover") and similarly, a buy signal occurs when the MACD rises above its signal line.

MACD Signal Line Crossover MACD Signal Line Crossover Bullish

The MACD is the difference between a 26-day and 12-day exponential moving average of closing prices. A 9-day EMA, called the "signal" line is plotted on top of the MACD to show buy/sell opportunities.

The basic MACD trading rule is to sell when the "slow line" of the MACD falls below the faster 9-Day EMA line (known as a "signal line crossover") and similarly, a buy signal occurs when the MACD rises above its signal line.

MACD Zero Line Crossover MACD Zero Line Crossover Bearish

The MACD is the difference between a 26-day and 12-day exponential moving average of closing prices. It is popular to buy/sell when the MACD goes above/below zero (known as a "centreline crossover").

MACD Zero Line Crossover MACD Zero Line Crossover Bullish

The MACD is the difference between a 26-day and 12-day exponential moving average of closing prices. It is popular to buy/sell when the MACD goes above/below zero (known as a "centreline crossover").

New Highs New Highs

This shows stocks that are trading at their highest price over the last 52 weeks (12 months). Academic research suggests that stocks at or close to their 52 week highs tend to outperform.

New Lows New Lows

This shows stocks that are trading at their lowest price over the last 52 weeks (12 months). Academic research suggests that stocks at or close to their 52 week lows tend to outperform.

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